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Enrique Colino, Jorge Garcia-Unanue, Leonor Gallardo, Carl Foster, Alejandro Lucia and Jose Luis Felipe

(SA), vertical deformation (VD), and energy restitution (ER). 12 , 13 In this regard, the International Association of Athletics Federations has established that the SA and VD values of track-and-field surfaces must range between 35% and 50% and 0.6 to 2.5 mm, respectively, while no reference values

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Douglas W. Powell, Benjamin Long, Clare E. Milner and Songning Zhang

The medial longitudinal arch plays a major role in determining lower extremity kinematics. Thus, it is necessary to understand the dynamics of the arch structure in response to load. The purpose of this study was to examine arch function in high- and low-arched feet during a vertical loading condition. Ten high- and ten low-arched females performed five trials in a sit-to-stand exercise. Ground reaction force (1200 Hz) and three-dimensional kinematics (240 Hz) were collected simultaneously. The high-and low-arched athletes had no differences in vertical deformation of the arch. High-arched participants were less everted than the low-arched athletes; furthermore, the high-arched athletes had smaller mid-forefoot eversion excursions. Differences between the high-arched and low-arched athletes occur through and motion at the mid-forefoot joint.

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Michael E. Hales and John D. Johnson II

Materials (ASTM) was used to measure mechanical properties of the athletic fields. The Advanced Artificial Athlete recorded force reduction (in percentage), vertical deformation (in millimeters), and energy restitution (ER; in percentage) (Labosport France, Le Mans, France). The field test procedure (ASTM

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Jorge López-Fernández, Javier Sánchez-Sánchez, Jorge García-Unanue, José Luis Felipe, Enrique Colino and Leonor Gallardo

properties of both surfaces were assessed as in previous studies. 10 , 11 Shock absorption (%), vertical deformation (mm), and energy return (%) were recorded using an Advanced Artificial Athlete (Labosport, Le Mans, France), the FIFA-certified equipment for assessing these variables. 2 Each variable was

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Sean J. Maloney, Joanna Richards and Iain M. Fletcher

effect size ( d  = 2.16; P  = .10). Maloney et al 14 not only observed higher GRF during unilateral drop jumping, as in this study, but also less COM displacement. This study reports that greater GRF experienced during the unilateral drop jump is mediated by greater vertical deformation of the body