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Sean J. Maloney, Joanna Richards, and Iain M. Fletcher

Stiffness is a physical measure that describes the deformation of a material in response to the application of a force. 1 Specifically, vertical stiffness is a representative measure of whole-body stiffness, describing how the body deforms in response to force during a vertical movement task such

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Sahar Boozari, Mohammad Ali Sanjari, Ali Amiri, and Ismail Ebrahimi Takamjani

movements such as CMJ. Based on our literature search, there has not yet been a study to assess the effects of KT on various CMJ parameters and vertical stiffness (VS). In addition, we wanted to know if KT could diminish the fatigue adverse effects on these variables. As the gastrocnemius is one of the

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Justin P. Waxman, Kevin R. Ford, Anh-Dung Nguyen, and Jeffrey B. Taylor

at a set hopping frequency. 1 , 2 Stiffness is then calculated as the ratio of peak vertical ground reaction force to maximum vertical center-of-mass (CoM) displacement. 17 , 18 When calculated in this manner, the stiffness value obtained has been termed “vertical stiffness”. 2 In this context

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Panagiotis Pappas, Giorgos Dallas, and Giorgos Paradisis

In research, the accurate and reliable measurement of leg and vertical stiffness could contribute to valid interpretations. The current study aimed at determining the intraparticipant variability (ie, intraday and interday reliabilities) of leg and vertical stiffness, as well as related parameters, during high speed treadmill running, using the “sine-wave” method. Thirty-one males ran on a treadmill at 6.67 m∙s−1, and the contact and flight times were measured. To determine the intraday reliability, three 10-s running bouts with 10-min recovery were performed. In addition, to examine the interday reliability, three 10-s running bouts on 3 separate days with 48-h interbout intervals were performed. The reliability statistics included repeated-measure analysis of variance, average intertrial correlations, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), Cronbach’s α reliability coefficient, and the coefficient of variation (CV%). Both intraday and interday reliabilities were high for leg and vertical stiffness (ICC > 0.939 and CV < 4.3%), as well as related variables (ICC > 0.934 and CV < 3.9%). It was thus inferred that the measurements of leg and vertical stiffness, as well as the related parameters obtained using the “sine-wave” method during treadmill running at 6.67 m∙s−1, were highly reliable, both within and across days.

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Anissa Cherif, Romain Meeusen, Abdulaziz Farooq, Joong Ryu, Mohamed Amine Fenneni, Zoran Nikolovski, Sittana Elshafie, Karim Chamari, and Bart Roelands


To examine the effects of 3 d of intermittent fasting (3d-IF: abstaining from eating/drinking from dawn to sunset) on physical performance and metabolic responses to repeated sprints (RSs).


Twenty-one active males performed an RS test (2 sets: 5 × 5-s maximal sprints with 25 s of recovery between and 3 min of recovery between sets on an instrumented treadmill) in 2 conditions: counterbalanced fed/control session (CS) and fasting session (FS). Biomechanical and biochemical markers were assessed preexercise and postexercise.


Significant main effects of IF were observed for sprints: maximal speed (P = .016), mean speed (P = .015), maximal power (P = .035), mean power (P = .049), vertical stiffness (P = .032), and vertical center-of-mass displacement (P = .047). Sprint speed and vertical stiffness decreased during the 1st (P = .003 and P = .005) and 2nd sprints (P = .046 and P = .048) of set 2, respectively. Postexercise insulin decreased in CS (P = .023) but not in FS (P = .230). Free-fatty-acid levels were higher in FS than in CS at preexercise (P < .001) and at postexercise (P = .009). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was higher at postexercise in FS (1.32 ± 0.22 mmol/L) than in CS (1.26 ± 0.21 mmol/L, P = .039). The triglyceride (TG) concentration was decreased in FS (P < .05) compared with CS.


3d-IF impaired speed and power through a decrease in vertical stiffness during the initial runs of the 2nd set of RS. The findings of the current study confirmed the benefits of 3d-IF: improved HDL-C and TG profiles while maintaining total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Moreover, improving muscle power might be a key factor to retain a higher vertical stiffness and to partly counteract the negative effects of intermittent fasting.

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Gabriela Fischer, Jorge L.L. Storniolo, and Leonardo A. Peyré-Tartaruga

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of acute fatigue on spring-mass model (SMM) parameters among recreational runners at different speeds. Eleven participants (5 males and 6 females) performed running trials at slower, self-selected, and faster speeds on an indoor track before and after performing a fatigue protocol (60 s of countermovement jumps). Maximal vertical force (Fmax), impact peak force (Fpeak), loading rate (LR), contact time (Tc), aerial time (Ta), step frequency (SF), step length (SL), maximal vertical displacement of the center of mass (ΔZ), vertical stiffness (Kvert), and leg work (Wleg) were measured using a force plate integrated into the track. A significant reduction (–43.1 ± 8.6%; P < .05) in mechanical power during jumps indicated that the subjects became fatigued. The results showed that under fatigue conditions, the runners adjusted their running mechanics at slower (≈2.7 ms–1; ΔZ –12% and SF +3.9%; P < .05), self-selected (≈3.3 ms–1; SF +3%, SL –6.8%, Ta –16%, and Fmax –3.3%; P < .05), and faster (≈3.6 ms–1 SL –6.9%, Ta –14% and Fpeak –9.8%; P < .05) speeds without significantly altering Kvert (P > .05). During constant running, the previous 60 s of maximal vertical jumps induced mechanical adjustments in the spatiotemporal parameters without altering Kvert.

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Kurt L. Mudie, Amitabh Gupta, Simon Green, Hiroaki Hobara, and Peter J. Clothier

This study assessed the agreement between Kvert calculated from 4 different methods of estimating vertical displacement of the center of mass (COM) during single-leg hopping. Healthy participants (N = 38) completed a 10-s single-leg hopping effort on a force plate, with 3D motion of the lower limb, pelvis, and trunk captured. Derived variables were calculated for a total of 753 hop cycles using 4 methods, including: double integration of the vertical ground reaction force, law of falling bodies, a marker cluster on the sacrum, and a segmental analysis method. Bland-Altman plots demonstrated that Kvert calculated using segmental analysis and double integration methods have a relatively small bias (0.93 kN⋅m–1) and 95% limits of agreement (–1.89 to 3.75 kN⋅m–1). In contrast, a greater bias was revealed between sacral marker cluster and segmental analysis (–2.32 kN⋅m–1), sacral marker cluster and double integration (–3.25 kN⋅m–1), and the law of falling bodies compared with all methods (17.26–20.52 kN⋅m–1). These findings suggest the segmental analysis and double integration methods can be used interchangeably for the calculation of Kvert during single-leg hopping. The authors propose the segmental analysis method to be considered the gold standard for the calculation of Kvert during single-leg, on-the-spot hopping.

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Kristof Kipp, Michael T. Kiely, Matthew D. Giordanelli, Philip J. Malloy, and Christopher F. Geiser

the RSI is associated with vertical stiffness. 7 , 8 In addition, given that maximal DJ performance depends on optimal stretch-shortening-cycle function, it could also be hypothesized that the RSI is associated with the center-of-mass (COM) energetics. 9 Furthermore, since drop height is often

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Luca Ruggiero, Susan Dewhurst, and Theodoros M. Bampouras

Leg stiffness is an important performance determinant in several sporting activities. This study evaluated the criterion-related validity and reliability of 2 field-based leg stiffness devices, Optojump Next® (Optojump) and Myotest Pro® (Myotest) in different testing approaches. Thirty-four males performed, on 2 separate sessions, 3 trials of 7 maximal hops, synchronously recorded from a force platform (FP), Optojump and Myotest. Validity (Pearson’s correlation coefficient, r; relative mean bias; 95% limits of agreement, 95%LoA) and reliability (coefficient of variation, CV; intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC; standard error of measurement, SEM) were calculated for first attempt, maximal attempt, and average across 3 trials. For all 3 methods, Optojump correlated highly to the FP (range r = .98–.99) with small bias (range 0.91–0.92, 95%LoA 0.86–0.98). Myotest demonstrated high correlation to FP (range r = .81–.86) with larger bias (range 1.92–1.93, 95%LoA 1.63–2.23). Optojump yielded a low CV (range 5.9% to 6.8%), high ICC (range 0.82–0.86), and SEM ranging 1.8–2.1 kN/m. Myotest had a larger CV (range 8.9% to 13.0%), moderate ICC (range 0.64–0.79), and SEM ranging from 6.3 to 8.9 kN/m. The findings present important information for these devices and support the use of a time-efficient single trial to assess leg stiffness in the field.

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Mark A. Sutherlin, L. Colby Mangum, Shawn Russell, Susan Saliba, Jay Hertel, and Joe M. Hart

individuals, leading to increased or abnormal forces placed on more proximal structures that could result in injury. Two methods to assess force attenuation during landing could be through a lower-extremity or vertical stiffness 8 – 13 or individual joint stiffness measures. 9 , 10 , 14 Lower