collected using a PMU. The purpose of this study was to assess differences in physical activity level (accelerometry and heart rate) and perceived enjoyment while wearing a PMU compared with not wearing the PMU during a variety of common children’s games (eg, tag) or active video games (eg, Xbox games
Kimberly A. Clevenger, Karin A. Pfeiffer and Cheryl A. Howe
Monna Arvinen-Barrow, Nathan Maresh and Jennifer Earl-Boehm
, while also providing the desired subtle and indirect psychological support, is through the introduction of active video games (AVG) as an adjunct to, or replacement for, traditional treatment modality during rehabilitation. Albeit conducted predominantly with elderly populations receiving balance
Anthony Barnett, Ester Cerin and Tom Baranowski
A population level increase in physical activity (PA) is critical to reduce obesity in youth. Video games are highly popular and active video games (AVGs) have the potential to play a role in promoting youth PA.
Studies on AVG play energy expenditure (EE) and maintenance of play in youth were systematically identified in the published literature and assessed for quality and informational value.
Nine studies measuring AVG play EE were identified. The meta-analytic estimates of average METs across these studies were 3.1 (95% CI: 2.6, 3.6) to 3.2 (95% CI: 2.7, 3.7). No games elicited an average EE above the 6 MET threshold for vigorous EE. Observed differences between studies were likely due to the different types of games used, rather than age or gender. Four studies related to maintenance of play were identified. Most studies reported AV G use declined over time. Studies were of low-to-medium quality.
AVGs are capable of generating EE in youth to attain PA guidelines. Few studies have assessed sustainability of AV G play, which appears to diminish after a short period of time for most players. Better-quality future research must address how AV G play could be maintained over longer periods of time.
Louise Foley and Ralph Maddison
There has been increased research interest in the use of active video games (in which players physically interact with images onscreen) as a means to promote physical activity in children. The aim of this review was to assess active video games as a means of increasing energy expenditure and physical activity behavior in children. Studies were obtained from computerised searches of multiple electronic bibliographic databases. The last search was conducted in December 2008. Eleven studies focused on the quantification of the energy cost associated with playing active video games, and eight studies focused on the utility of active video games as an intervention to increase physical activity in children. Compared with traditional nonactive video games, active video games elicited greater energy expenditure, which was similar in intensity to mild to moderate intensity physical activity. The intervention studies indicate that active video games may have the potential to increase free-living physical activity and improve body composition in children; however, methodological limitations prevent definitive conclusions. Future research should focus on larger, methodologically sound intervention trials to provide definitive answers as to whether this technology is effective in promoting long-term physical activity in children.
Steven Craig Conway
This article is a critical qualitative textual analysis of a selection of soccer video games, focusing on the representational and functional aspects of machine actions outside the game (Galloway, 2006) as illustrated by the “Introductory Video” and “Start Menu.” I analyze the figurative and ludic implications of these components comparatively, illustrating their crucial role in configuring audience expectations and pleasures for the game genre as well as for game play. By doing so I hope to illuminate how the socio-ideological values of sport video games (and video games in general) are not only exhibited through the main content of the game but also through something as simple as the start screen. This research concludes by examining what these nongame spaces have to tell us about representations of soccer in new media, and how these mediations affect our understanding of the sport’s culture.
Garry Crawford and Victoria K. Gosling
This article considers the social importance of sports-themed video games, and more specifically, discusses their use and role in the construction of gaming and wider social narratives. Here, building on our own and wider sociological and video games studies, we advocate adopting an audience research perspective that allows for consideration of not only narratives within games but also how these narratives are used and located within the everyday lives of gamers. In particular, we argue that sports-themed games provide an illustrative example of how media texts are used in identity construction, performances, and social narratives.
Darcy Cree Plymire
In this article I argue that digital technologies are remediating sport in ways that invite users to adopt posthuman subject positions. The focus of my analysis is EA Sports’ “Madden NFL.” First, I explain how video games reflect qualities of immediacy and hypermediation to create immersive gaming experiences. Then I go on to show how immersion in sport video games creates a relationship to the body and the self that are categorically different from those created by televised sport. I conclude that sport media studies will benefit from further consideration of the posthuman condition.
Cheryl A. Howe, Marcus W. Barr, Brett C. Winner, Jenelynn R. Kimble and Jason B. White
Although promoted for weight loss, especially in young adults, it has yet to be determined if the physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and intensity of the newest active video games (AVGs) qualifies as moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; > 3.0 METs). This study compared the PAEE and intensity of AVGs to traditional seated video games (SVGs).
Fifty-three young adults (18−35 y; 27 females) volunteered to play 6 video games (4 AVGs, 2 SVGs). Anthropometrics and resting metabolism were measured before testing. While playing the games (6−10 min) in random order against a playmate, the participants wore a portable metabolic analyzer for measuring PAEE (kcal/min) and intensity (METs). A repeated-measures ANOVA compared the PAEE and intensity across games with sex, BMI, and PA status as main effects.
The intensity of AVGs (6.1 ± 0.2 METs) was significantly greater than SVGs (1.8 ± 0.1 METs). AVGs elicited greater PAEE than SVGs in all participants (5.3 ± 0.2 vs 0.8 ± 0.0 kcal/min); PAEE during the AVGs was greater in males and overweight participants compared with females and healthy weight participants (p’s < .05).
The newest AVGs do qualify as MVPA and can contribute to the recommended dose of MVPA for weight management in young adults.
Nirjhar Dutta and Mark A. Pereira
The objective of this study was to estimate the mean difference in energy expenditure (EE) in healthy adults between playing active video games (AVGs) compared with traditional video games (TVGs) or rest.
A systematic search was conducted on Ovid MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge, and Academic Search Premier between 1998 and April 2012 for relevant keywords, yielding 15 studies. EE and heart rate (HR) data were extracted, and random effects meta-analysis was performed.
EE during AVG play was 1.81 (95% CI, 1.29–2.34; I 2 = 94.2%) kcal/kg/hr higher, or about 108 kcal higher per hour for a 60-kg person, compared with TVG play. Mean HR was 21 (95% CI, 13.7–28.3; I 2 = 93.4%) beats higher per minute during AVG play compared with TVG play. There was wide variation in the EE and HR estimates across studies because different games were evaluated. Overall metabolic equivalent associated with AVG play was 2.62 (95% CI, 2.25–3.00; I 2 = 99.2%), equivalent to a light activity level. Most studies had low risk of bias due to proper study design and use of indirect calorimetry to measure EE.
AVGs may be used to replace sedentary screen time (eg, television watching or TVG play) with light activity in healthy adults.
Beth A. Cianfrone, Galen T. Trail, James J. Zhang and Richard J. Lutz
Sport video games (SVGs) are a popular form of sport media and sponsorship, and advertising in SVGs is increasingly common. This study assessed the effectiveness of SVG in-game advertisements in 3 consumption domains: cognitive, affective, and conative. An experimental study was designed with 89 gamers randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions: (a) experimental, playing an SVG with advertisements, or (b) control, playing an SVG without advertisements. Consumption background and identification level were incorporated as covariates to ensure group equivalence. Participants responded to a questionnaire measuring brand awareness, brand attitude, and purchase intentions. MANCOVA revealed that after controlling for the effect of covariate variables, the experimental group had a significantly (p < .05) greater mean brand-awareness score than the control group. Mean brand-attitude and purchase-intention scores were not significantly (p > .05) different between groups. The findings indicated that SVG in-game advertising was effective in creating awareness.