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Dave Smith and Paul Holmes

This study examined the effect of various imagery modalities on golf putting performance. Forty experienced male golfers were randomly assigned to one of four groups. A “written script” group received a personalized, response proposition-laden script. Participants in the audio and video groups either listened to an audiotape or watched an internal-perspective videotape of themselves putting. Control participants spent an equivalent amount of time reading golf literature. Each participant completed a 15-ball putting task twice a week for 6 weeks and also performed his imagery or reading daily during this period. Pretests revealed no significant differences in performance. Posttests, however, showed that the video and audio groups performed significantly better than the written script and control groups. This indicates that the form in which an imagery intervention is delivered can have a significant impact on its performance effectiveness.

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Robert Shapiro, Chris Blow and Greg Rash

The use of video images in biomechanical analyses has become more realistic since the introduction of the shuttered video camera. Although recording rates are still limited to 60 Hz, exposure times can be reduced to prevent blurring in most situations. This paper presents a system for manually digitizing video images, a system that utilizes a video overlay board to place a set of cross hairs directly on a previously recorded or live video image. A cursor is used to move the cross hairs over required points. A BASIC program was written for a IBM PC-AT computer to accomplish this task. Video images of a known set of points were digitized, and calculated distances between points were compared to real distances. The mean of the observed errors was 0.79%. It was concluded that this digitizing system, within the limitations of video resolution, yielded digitizing errors similar in magnitude to those observed in cinematographic analyses.

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Yongjin Hwang, Khalid Ballouli, Kevin So and Bob Heere

of video games ( Newman, 2013 ), a sport video game (SVG) is especially meaningful as it is considered the most realistic and appropriate type of video game for in-game advertisements ( Nelson, 2002 ). In addition, the SVG market represents the third highest selling type of video game in the industry

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Christoph Szedlak, Matthew J. Smith, Bettina Callary and Melissa C. Day

learn (including audio and visual methods) presented through online multimedia instruction ( Langdon, Harris, Burdette III, & Rothberger, 2015 ), video ( Murray, 2011 ), or face to face mentorship interactions ( Reade, Rodgers, & Spriggs, 2008 ). Even such approaches are often criticised as learning is

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Samuel Sigrist, Thomas Maier and Raphael Faiss

influenced by speed, while differences in qualitative scores may better relate to riders’ skills in particular. In this context, video recordings provide a powerful evaluation tool for the appreciation of quantitative (eg, transition time or distance from first to fourth position, height reached in the curve

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Cheryl A. Howe, Kimberly A. Clevenger, Brian Plow, Steve Porter and Gaurav Sinha

different group, or a different child. One solution to these problems is video direct observation (ViDO), which allows researchers to collect continuous, second-by-second data for individual children and explore a multitude of participant characteristics (eg, sex, weight status) and contextual factors (eg

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Jordan A. Carlson, J. Aaron Hipp, Jacqueline Kerr, Todd S. Horowitz and David Berrigan

 al., 2015 ). Additional emerging technologies, including the improvements in the quantity, quality, and diversity of camera and video devices, have greatly expanded the potential sources and analytic techniques for systematic observation ( Graham & Hipp, 2014 ; Loveday, Sherar, Sanders, Sanderson

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Anna M. Ifarraguerri, Danielle M. Torp, Abbey C. Thomas and Luke Donovan

Key Points ▸ Real-time video feedback caused inconsistent alterations in gait in patients with chronic ankle instability. ▸ Efficacy of other clinician cues during video feedback should be determined. ▸ Other gait retraining interventions should be considered when treating patients with chronic

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Jean Eckrich, Carol J. Widule, Ray Anne Shrader and Jane Maver

The purposes of this study were to develop and implement an observational training program and to assess the effects of a video observational training program on video and live observational proficiency. Physical education majors took a pretest in both a video and a live environment to assess observational proficiency. The task was observing children batting and answering questions regarding the critical features of the movement. The students were then placed into either a treatment (n = 12) or a control (n = 11) group. There were no differences between groups on either assessment (p > .05). The treatment group then participated in a video observational training program. After the training, all subjects took a posttest in each environment to assess observational proficiency. The training was found to be effective in improving video observational proficiency (p < .05) but not live observational proficiency (p > .05). These results provide support for the effectiveness of video observational training in developing video observational proficiency but not live observational proficiency.

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Yongwoo Lee, Wonjae Choi, Kyeongjin Lee, Changho Song and Seungwon Lee

; Iwamoto et al., 2009 ). However, a simple exercise may become monotonous or boring to older adults. Alternatively, augmented reality, virtual reality, and video-game-based training are available ( de Bruin, Schoene, Pichierri, & Smith, 2010 ; Duque et al., 2013 ). In particular, previous studies have