indicate that there was an increase in the percentage of incorrect decisions and missed fouls in the second half, possibly due to increased fatigue at this time. The 10-min psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) is widely used to assess neurobehavioral performance and cognitive functioning. 14 The 10-min PVT is
Hawkar S. Ahmed, Samuele M. Marcora, David Dixon, and Glen Davison
Thomas Mullen, Craig Twist, and Jamie Highton
perceptual responses in several ways. For example, with sustained vigilance during a repetitive activity, a “zoning out” might occur causing disengagement from the task. 10 Task disengagement and reduced vigilance negatively affect decision making, 10 while maintaining vigilance is associated with a
Anis Kamoun, Omar Hammouda, Abdelmoneem Yahia, Oussema Dhari, Houcem Ksentini, Tarak Driss, Nizar Souissi, and Mohamed Habib Elleuch
& Berger, 1990 ), Spiegel sleep questionnaire ( Carskadon et al., 1976 ), choice reaction time (CRT) ( De Quel, Bennett, Adan, Zapico, & Morales, 2015 ), vigilance ( Zazzo, Galifret-Granjon, Hurtig, & Santucci, 1965 ), and balance tests containing several tasks ( Yahia et al., 2011 ) (Figure 1 ). Figure 1
Karla A. Kubitz and Konstantinos Pothakos
In the present study, participants were randomly assigned to an exercise or a nonexercise group to measure brain activation (spontaneous EEG activity), affect, and cognitive functioning before and after a 15-min treatment period. Exercisers (a) sat quietly for 5 min, (b) exercised for 15 min, (c) recovered for 5 min, and (d) completed a 15-min vigilance task. Nonexercisers did not exercise. There was a significant (a) Condition × Band × Time interaction for EEG activity, (b) Condition × Time interaction for Activation-Deactivation Adjective Checklist (AD ACL) scores, and (c) Condition × Time interaction for reaction times (RTs). Post hoc tests showed (a) no significant group effects at the baseline and 15-min vigilance periods, and (b) significant group effects at the postexercise and 5-min vigilance periods. Exercisers had lower levels of brain activation (i.e., more theta and alpha activity and less beta activity), higher AD ACL scores, and slower RTs than nonexercisers during these periods.
Haresh T. Suppiah, Chee Yong Low, and Michael Chia
Adolescent student-athletes face time constraints due to athletic and scholastic commitments, resulting in habitually shortened nocturnal sleep durations. However, there is a dearth of research on the effects of sleep debt on student-athlete performance. The study aimed to (i) examine the habitual sleep patterns (actigraphy) of high-level student-athletes during a week of training and academic activities, (ii) ascertain the effects of habitual sleep durations experienced by high-level student-athletes on psychomotor performance, and (iii) examine the impact of sport training intensities on the sleep patterns of high-level student-athletes that participate in low and high intensity sports.
Sleep patterns of 29 high-level student-athletes (14.7 ± 1.3 yrs) were monitored over 7 days. A psychomotor vigilance task was administered on weekdays to ascertain the effects of habitual sleep durations.
Weekend total sleep time was longer than weekdays along with a delay in bedtime, and waketimes. Psychomotor vigilance reaction times on Monday were faster than on Thursday and Friday, with reaction times on Tuesday also faster than on Friday. False starts and lapses were greater on Friday compared with Monday.
There was a negative impact of sleep debt on student-athletes’ psychomotor performance.
Florentino Huertas, Javier Zahonero, Daniel Sanabria, and Juan Lupiáñez
The present study explored the effects of three different activity conditions on three attentional functions: alerting, orienting, and executive control. A group of highly experienced cyclists performed the Attention Network Test–Interactions (Callejas, Lupiáñez, & Tudela, 2004) at rest, during moderate aerobic exercise, and during intense aerobic exercise. Results indicated that aerobic exercise accelerated reaction time and reduced the alerting effect compared with the rest condition. However, aerobic exercise did not modulate the functioning of either the orienting or the executive control attentional networks. No differences in reaction time or attentional functioning were observed between the two aerobic exercise workloads. The present results suggest that moderate aerobic exercise modulates the functioning of phasic alertness by increasing the general state of tonic vigilance.
Melissa N. Chester and Michael Mondello
The purpose of this study was to ascertain what role mentoring played in female sport management faculty’s decision to pursue doctoral degrees and to investigate and identify factors related to successful transition through the doctoral program. A qualitative, descriptive-interpretive approach utilizing a cross case analysis of current female faculty in sport management was used to discover participants’ subjective views regarding a specific experience or experiences in an effort to provide unique, relevant data (Anda, 2001). This methodology allowed for a greater understanding of the participants and their experiences. Semistructured interviews were conducted with eight participants dichotomized by race: four White and four Black Assistant Professors teaching in undergraduate and graduate programs at various types of Carnegie classified institutions. Collectively, seven major themes and four major personality traits and characteristics developed from verbatim transcriptions of the interviews. The seven themes included athletic involvement, career in athletics, career aspirations, pedagogy decision, influence of mentor, mentor roles, and context of mentoring. The four personality traits and characteristics related to success were athletic involvement/career in athletics, single with no dependents, competitive/confident, and vigilance/determination.
Robin S. Vealey
Although sport psychology consultants typically engage in conflict resolution as part of team interventions, cases of extreme relationship conflict in teams resulting in distrust, tension, and hostility require special consideration for the consultant who is starting “below zero” when beginning a consultant relationship with a program. Such a case warrants not just culture building, but cultural reparation and the development of resolution efficacy among team members. The purpose of this case study is to describe an intervention program with a college basketball team that was experiencing multiple relationships conflicts and an extremely dysfunctional team culture. The intervention focused on (a) enabling players to take ownership of and be accountable for a “smart system” team culture, (b) initiating a process to build resolution efficacy that focused on accepting and managing task conflict (while reducing relationship conflict) and emphasized interpersonal risk-taking and vulnerability to build trust, and (c) enhancing coach-athlete relationships. Reflections on the case include the importance of vigilance about ethical boundary and confidentiality issues in “below zero” situations and the role of coaches who prefer transactional leadership styles in building team culture and resolution efficacy for conflict.
Matthew T. Wittbrodt, Mindy Millard-Stafford, Ross A. Sherman, and Christopher C. Cheatham
The impact of mild hypohydration on physiological responses and cognitive performance following exercise-heat stress (EHS) were examined compared with conditions when fluids were ingested ad libitum (AL) or replaced to match sweat losses (FR).
Twelve unacclimatized, recreationally-active men (22.2 ± 2.4 y) completed 50 min cycling (60%VO2peak) in the heat (32°C; 65% RH) under three conditions: no fluid (NF), AL, and FR. Before and after EHS, a cognitive battery was completed: Trail making, perceptual vigilance, pattern comparison, match-to-sample, and letter-digit recognition tests.
Hypohydration during NF was greater compared with AL and FR (NF: -1.5 ± 0.6; AL: -0.3 ± 0.8; FR: -0.1 ± 0.3% body mass loss) resulting in higher core temperature (by 0.4, 0.5 °C), heart rate (by 13 and 15 b·min-1), and physiological strain (by 1.3, 1.5) at the end of EHS compared with AL and FR, respectively. Cognitive performance (response time and accuracy) was not altered by fluid condition; however, mean response time improved (p < .05) for letter-digit recognition (by 56.7 ± 85.8 ms or 3.8%; p < .05) and pattern comparison (by 80.6 ± 57.4 ms or 7.1%; p < .001), but mean accuracy decreased in trail making (by 1.2 ± 1.4%; p = .01) after EHS (across all conditions).
For recreational athletes, fluid intake effectively mitigated physiological strain induced by mild hypohydration; however, mild hypohydration resulting from EHS elicited no adverse changes in cognitive performance.
To present strategies for identifying predisposing conditions, susceptibility, and incidence reduction for the most common exertional heat illnesses (EHI): heat cramps, heat exhaustion, and most importantly, heat stroke.
A comprehensive literature review of MEDLINE and 1996 to 2006, including all retrospective, controlled studies of EHI risk using the following keywords: exertional heat illness risk, exertional heat stroke risk, and exercise-induced dehydration risk. Search limits included the following: English language, published in the last 10 years, clinical trial, meta-analysis, practice guideline, randomized controlled trial, review, and humans. A manual review was conducted of relevant position statements and book chapters including the reference lists.
To evaluate the quality of the empirical studies to be included in this review, each study must have scored at least 17/22 or 77% of items included when reporting a randomized trial using the CONSORT checklist.
Many cases of EHI are preventable and can be successfully treated if the ATC® identifies individuals at increased relative risk and implement appropriate prevention strategies. The ability to objectively identify individuals at increased relative risk of EHI and to provide appropriate monitoring is critical in EHI prevention and reduction of repeated incidents of EHI.
For any heat illness prevention program to be effective, greater attention and continued observation is needed for athletes at high risk for EHI. For many athletic teams or programs, because of the sheer numbers and associated catastrophic injury potential, health care professionals must implement a system by which high-risk individuals are monitored during activity with the highest level of vigilance for prevention of EHI.