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Colin A. Armstrong, James F. Sallis, Melbourne F. Hovell and C. Richard Hofstetter

Components of the transtheoretical model of change were examined in a prospective study of the adoption of vigorous exercise in adults. Respondents to a random mail survey were resurveyed 2 years later. Those who reported no vigorous exercise at baseline were classified as either contemplators (n = 213) or precontemplators (n = 188). Contemplators had higher baseline self-efficacy scores than precontemplators (p < .001). In multivariate analyses, baseline stage of change was a significant predictor (p < .0005) of later adoption of vigorous exercise, even after controlling for differences in age, gender, and self-efficacy. During the first 6 months postbaseline, contemplators were nearly twice as likely as precontemplators to progress to the stage of action (46% vs. 24%), and four times more likely to progress to the stage of maintenance (25% vs. 6%). Use of the transtheoretical model in the study of exercise was supported in this prospective examination of exercise in a community sample.

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W. Jack Rejeski, Charles J. Hardy and Janet Shaw

This investigation examined the possible psychometric confounds of interpreting exercise-induced symptom reporting as changes in stete anxiety. Thirty male subjects exercised on a motor-driven treadmill for 15 min at 75% of maximum heart rate reserve. Prior to» during, and following the exercise, subjects responded to short forms of Spielberger's State Anxiety Inventory (SAI), Thayer's Aetivation-Deactivation Adjective Check List (AD-ACL), Borg's Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) scale» and a measure of affect. Preliminary results indicated that following 10 min of recovery from exercise» SAI scores were lower than baseline responses. Upon former analysis of individual SAI items, however, it was evident mat changes occurring in total SAI scores as a result of exercise were strongly influenced by changes in energetic arousal and general deactivation. This conclusion was supported by data from the AD-ACL as well as responses to postexperimental interviews. These findings cal into question the construct validity of the SAI and related state measures (e.g., the Profile of Mood States» or POMS) when used in conjunction with acute bouts of vigorous physical activity.

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Shanley Chong, Roy Byun, Soumya Mazumdar, Adrian Bauman and Bin Jalaludin

Background:

The aim was to investigate the association between distant green space and physical activity modified by local green space.

Methods:

Information about physical activity, demographic and socioeconomic background at the individual level was extracted from the New South Wales Population Health Survey. The proportion of a postcode that was parkland was used as a proxy measure for access to parklands and was calculated for each individual.

Results:

There was a significant relationship between distant green space and engaging in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) at least once a week. No significant relationship was found between adequate physical activity and distant green space. No significant relationships were found between adequate physical activity, engaging in MVPA, and local green space. However, if respondents lived in greater local green space (≥25%), there was a significant relationship between engaging in MVPA at least once a week and distance green space of ≥20%.

Conclusion:

This study highlights the important effect of distant green space on physical activity. Our findings also suggest that moderate size of local green space together with moderate size of distant green space are important levers for participation of physical activity.

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Zachary Zenko, Panteleimon Ekkekakis and Dan Ariely

There is a paucity of methods for improving the affective experience of exercise. We tested a novel method based on discoveries about the relation between exercise intensity and pleasure, and lessons from behavioral economics. We examined the effect of reversing the slope of pleasure during exercise from negative to positive on pleasure and enjoyment, remembered pleasure, and forecasted pleasure. Forty-six adults were randomly assigned to a 15-min bout of recumbent cycling of either increasing intensity (0–120% of watts corresponding to the ventilatory threshold) or decreasing intensity (120–0%). Ramping intensity down, thereby eliciting apositive slope of pleasure during exercise, improved postexercise pleasure and enjoyment, remembered pleasure, and forecasted pleasure. The slope of pleasure accounted for 35–46% of the variance in remembered and forecasted pleasure from 15 min to 7 days postexercise. Ramping intensity down makes it possible to combine exposure to vigorous and moderate intensities with a pleasant affective experience.

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Olivier Rey, Jean-Marc Vallier, Caroline Nicol, Charles-Symphorien Mercier and Christophe Maïano

Purpose:

This study examined the effects of a five-week intervention combining vigorous interval training (VIT) with diet among twenty-four obese adolescents. Fourteen girls and ten boys (aged 14–15) schooled in a pediatric rehabilitation center participated.

Methods:

The VIT intensity was targeted and remained above 80% of maximal heart rate (HR) and over six kilocalories per minute. Pre- and postintervention measures were body composition (BMI, weight, body fat percentage), physical self-perceptions (PSP), physical fitness (6-min walking distance and work) and its associated physiological responses (HRpeak and blood lactate concentration). A series of two-way analyses of variance or covariance controlling for weight loss were used to examine the changes.

Results:

Significant improvements were found in body composition, physical fitness and PSP (endurance, activity level, sport competence, global physical self-concept and appearance). In addition, boys presented higher levels of perceived strength and global physical self-concept than girls. Finally, there was a significant increase in perceived endurance, sport competence, and global physical self-concept in girls only.

Conclusion:

This five-week VIT program combined with diet represents an effective means for improving body composition, physical fitness, and PSP in obese adolescents, the effects on PSP being larger among girls.

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Judith Godin, Joanna M. Blodgett, Kenneth Rockwood and Olga Theou

sedentary time with moderate–vigorous activity was more strongly related to lower frailty compared with replacing sedentary time with light activity. However, although more vigorous exercise may offer health benefits to vulnerable individuals, light activity may offer more health benefits for frailer

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Julia C. Orri, Elizabeth M. Hughes, Deepa G. Mistry and Antone Scala

minute of the VO 2 max test and first 2 min of recovery, when the participants were standing. We have shown that both moderate and vigorous exercise training can lead to a healthy response to maximal exercise and recovery, with the MOD group having a slightly improved recovery in the triangular index

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Yara Fidelix, Mara C. Lofrano-Prado, Leonardo S. Fortes, James O. Hill, Ann E. Caldwell, João P. Botero and Wagner L. do Prado

of intensity on psychological outcomes. One of the few studies investigating the relationship between exercise intensity and depression, anxiety, and self-esteem in adolescents with obesity suggested that moderate to vigorous exercise are needed for improving these outcomes 14 ; however, in this

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Frances O’Callaghan, Michael O’Callaghan, Gail Williams, William Bor and Jake Najman

Background:

Studies involving animals and older adults suggest that physical activity (PA) might lead to improved cognitive ability in general, and enhanced intelligence scores (IQ) in particular. However, there are few studies involving young persons and none controlling for the possibility that those with better cognitive skills are more likely to engage in PA.

Methods:

Data are from the Mater–University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy. We measured IQ at the 14-year follow-up and IQ and PA at 21 years. Mean IQ scores are presented at the 21-year follow-up adjusted for IQ at 14 years, and PA and other variables.

Results:

Measures of vigorous exercise, less vigorous exercise, walking, and vigorous activity apart from exercise, produced inconsistent results. Increased levels of less vigorous exercise were associated with higher IQ, but neither higher levels of vigorous exercise nor walking were associated with IQ. For vigorous activity at work or in the home, the associations are curvilinear, with more and less activity both associated with lower IQ.

Conclusions:

While there is an association between some indicators of PA and IQ, there was no consistent evidence that higher PA levels might lead to increased IQ scores.

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Genevieve Fridlund Dunton and Margaret Schneider

Background:

Walking short distances provides a convenient opportunity to attain the health benefits of moderate-intensity physical activity. The present study tested the reliability and validity of an instrument designed to assess self-efficacy to overcome barriers to walking for transportation.

Methods:

A sample of 305 undergraduates, ages 18 to 46 y (mean = 20.6 y) (70.3% female), completed self-efficacy measures for travel-related walking and for vigorous exercise. Minutes of moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity were assessed using a MTI accelerometer (n = 85).

Results:

Overall, subjects reported low levels of self-efficacy to overcome barriers to walking for transportation. The eight-item walking for transportation self-efficacy scale demonstrated good reliability, discriminant validity, and expected relations to physical activity criteria.

Conclusion:

The conceptual distinction between self-efficacy for travel-related walking and self-efficacy for vigorous exercise may have important implications for interventions seeking to promote moderate-intensity physical activity through walking for transportation.