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Chanel T. LoJacono, Ryan P. MacPherson, Nikita A. Kuznetsov, Louisa D. Raisbeck, Scott E. Ross and Christopher K. Rhea

new and more advanced rehabilitation techniques, one of which is virtual reality. The use of virtual reality is defined as a simulation of a real environment that is generated through computer software and is experienced by the user through a human-machine interface ( Holden, 2005 ). From a motor

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Christopher A. DiCesare, Adam W. Kiefer, Scott Bonnette and Gregory D. Myer

may overcome the limitations of classical assessments involves simulating sport-specific environments through virtual reality (VR), which can effectively present simulated scenarios that facilitate real-world athletic performance and competition. 16 , 17 VR-based assessments may provide a more

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Katherine L. Hsieh, Yaejin Moon, Vignesh Ramkrishnan, Rama Ratnam and Jacob J. Sosnoff

measure postural stability, such as the functional reach task, 6 trunk sway, 7 and center of pressure (COP) measures (ie, velocity, area). 8 One method of measuring postural stability is determining virtual time to contact (VTC). VTC provides an estimate of how long it would take an individual to lose

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Mariam A. Ameer and Qassim I. Muaidi

specialists who use stretch-induced change to RT to protect patients from losing dynamic balance and decrease the risk of falling. The techniques employed in most of the previous studies lack in emulating real situation while performing measurements. To address this, virtual reality (VR) systems have been

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Yongwoo Lee, Wonjae Choi, Kyeongjin Lee, Changho Song and Seungwon Lee

; Iwamoto et al., 2009 ). However, a simple exercise may become monotonous or boring to older adults. Alternatively, augmented reality, virtual reality, and video-game-based training are available ( de Bruin, Schoene, Pichierri, & Smith, 2010 ; Duque et al., 2013 ). In particular, previous studies have

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Anat V. Lubetzky, Bryan D. Hujsak, Gene Fu and Ken Perlin

are limited to the research laboratory setting and cannot be utilized in the clinic. Recent advances in virtual reality (VR) technology such as the Oculus Rift (Oculus VR, LLC; Menlo Park, CA) and the HTC Vive (HTC Corporation, New Taipei City, Taiwan) could potentially help identify movement patterns

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Chih-Hung Chen, Ming-Chang Jeng, Chin-Ping Fung, Ji-Liang Doong and Tien-Yow Chuang

Context:

Whether virtual rehabilitation is beneficial has not been determined.

Objective:

To investigate the psychological benefits of virtual reality in rehabilitation.

Design:

An experimental group underwent therapy with a virtual-reality-based exercise bike, and a control group underwent the therapy without virtual-reality equipment.

Setting:

Hospital laboratory.

Patients:

30 patients suffering from spinal-cord injury.

Intervention:

A designed rehabilitation therapy.

Main Outcome Measures:

Endurance, Borg's rating-of-perceived-exertion scale, the Activation–Deactivation Adjective Check List (AD-ACL), and the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire.

Results:

The differences between the experimental and control groups were significant for AD-ACL calmness and tension.

Conclusion:

A virtual-reality-based rehabilitation program can ease patients' tension and induce calm.

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Wonjae Choi and Seungwon Lee

advantages of reducing age-related physical and cognitive deterioration, but it has a safety issue considering that it should be performed on water. Virtual reality is used to safely simulate natural motion ( Bohil, Alicea, & Biocca, 2011 ), ensure consistent and planned application of standardized

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Yosuke Tsuji, Gregg Bennett and James H. Leigh

The purpose of this study was to investigate factors affecting brand awareness of virtual advertising in sports. Specifically, the study tested the effects of animation, repetition, baseball involvement, and team identification. An experiment using two Latin square designs was conducted to assess the effects of these factors on awareness levels. Results indicated no effect of animation, while effects of repetition, baseball involvement, and team identification were found to affect viewers’ cognitive responses. Managerial implications, limitations, and future research are discussed.

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Kevin R. Ford, Anh-Dung Nguyen, Eric J. Hegedus and Jeffrey B. Taylor

Virtual environments with real-time feedback can simulate extrinsic goals that mimic real life conditions. The purpose was to compare jump performance and biomechanics with a physical overhead goal (POG) and with a virtual overhead goal (VOG). Fourteen female subjects participated (age: 18.8 ± 1.1 years, height: 163.2 ± 8.1 cm, weight 63.0 ± 7.9 kg). Sagittal plane trunk, hip, and knee biomechanics were calculated during the landing and take-off phases of drop vertical jump with different goal conditions. Repeated-measures ANOVAs determined differences between goal conditions. Vertical jump height displacement was not different during VOG compared with POG. Greater hip extensor moment (P < .001*) and hip angular impulse (P < .004*) were found during VOG compared with POG. Subjects landed more erect with less magnitude of trunk flexion (P = .002*) during POG compared with VOG. A virtual target can optimize jump height and promote increased hip moments and trunk flexion. This may be a useful alternative to physical targets to improve performance during certain biomechanical testing, screening, and training conditions.