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Fernando Naclerio, Eneko Larumbe-Zabala, Mar Larrosa, Aitor Centeno, Jonathan Esteve-Lanao and Diego Moreno-Pérez

doi:10.3945/ajcn.110.005850 10.3945/ajcn.110.005850 Arciero , P.J. , Baur , D. , Connelly , S. , & Ormsbee , M.J. ( 2014 ). Timed-daily ingestion of whey protein and exercise training reduces visceral adipose tissue mass and improves insulin resistance: The PRISE study . Journal of Applied

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YoonMyung Kim

visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), hepatic lipid content, IMAT, and IMCL ( 26 , 30 ). Therefore, the use of these imaging techniques in clinical research settings allows to investigate and develop an effective prevention and treatment strategy for reductions in depot

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S. Nicole Fearnbach, Neil M. Johannsen, Corby K. Martin, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Robbie A. Beyl, Daniel S. Hsia, Owen T. Carmichael and Amanda E. Staiano

American individuals, we also conducted an exploratory analysis by racial background. As African Americans tend to have higher FFM and lower visceral adipose tissue (VAT) for the same BW ( 9 , 24 ), we hypothesized that they would have higher fitness levels than white adolescents and would be less

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Alessandra Prioreschi and Lisa K. Micklesfield

, active time was measured in toddlers only. Data were missing for SAT (n = 2) and VAT (n = 36). P values in bold were statistically significant (<.05). Figure 1 —Flow chart describing sample size and missing data. Abbreviations: SAT indicates subcutaneous adipose tissue; VAT, visceral adipose tissue

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Magdalena Gibas-Dorna, Zuzanna Chęcińska, Emilia Korek, Justyna Kupsz, Anna Sowińska and Hanna Krauss

We determined whether cold water swimming for six consecutive months results in adaptive changes in body composition and insulin sensitivity. Thirty healthy subjects aged 50.2 ± 9.4 years were exposed to cold water at least twice a week. Body composition was determined and serum glucose and insulin served to calculate beta-cell function, insulin sensitivity, and resistance using HOMA2. Compared with control subjects, swimmers were overweight, and had greater percent body fat and beta cell function. Women had lower values of BMI, fat free mass, muscle mass, visceral adipose tissue level, and greater percent body fat than men. Increased insulin sensitivity and decreased insulin secretion and resistance from beginning to middle of swim season was observed in females and in lean subjects. Findings suggest that men and women differ in regard to body composition and response to repeated cold exposure. Cold water swimming may beneficially modulate insulin sensitivity in cold acclimated lean swimmers.

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Peter T. Katzmarzyk and Amanda E. Staiano

. Variations in the attenuation ratio (determined from known tissue content) established the fat content of the tissue at each pixel. Abdominal subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissues (VAT) were measured from cross-sectional magnetic resonance imaging scans obtained from a General Electric (GE) Signa

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ZáNean McClain, E. Andrew Pitchford, E. Kipling Webster, Daniel W. Tindall and Seo Hee Lee

the greatest increase in energy expenditure. However, both body mass index and visceral adipose tissue were negatively correlated with energy expenditure response to electrical stimulation due to impeding the stimulus that reached muscle fibers. These findings suggest that low-force muscle stimulus

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Ilkka Heinonen, Jukka Kemppainen, Toshihiko Fujimoto, Juhani Knuuti and Kari K. Kalliokoski

visceral adipose tissue, but this remains to be investigated. The amount of bone marrow adipose tissue is also known to be increased in osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is further accelerated by diabetes, and a recent study showed that vertebral bone marrow GU is inversely associated with bone marrow fat in

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Nicholas A. Koemel, Christina M. Sciarrillo, Katherine B. Bode, Madison D. Dixon, Edralin A. Lucas, Nathaniel D.M. Jenkins and Sam R. Emerson

than OA ( p  = .02) and OI ( p  = .0002). These findings were similar when comparing visceral adipose tissue between groups. YA was lower than OA ( p  = .04) and OI ( p  = .0004); YI was lower than OI ( p  = .0013). Skeletal muscle mass (SMM) did not differ between groups. There was a significant group

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Gregory Severino, Marcos Sanchez-Gonzalez, Michelle Walters-Edwards, Michael Nordvall, Oksana Chernykh, Jason Adames and Alexei Wong

-abdominal adiposity and increased sympathetic activity was previously reported in Canadian adolescents ( Syme et al., 2008 ). Since WBV has been observed to decrease visceral adipose tissue in both humans and animals ( Rubin et al., 2007 ; Vissers et al., 2010 ), we speculate that improvements to the LF/HF ratio in