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Phillip A. Gribble, Kevin M. Guskiewicz, William E. Prentice and Edgar W. Shields

The purposes of this study were to determine the effects of static and hold-relax stretching on hamstring range of motion and to examine the reliability of the FlexAbility LE1000 compared with the goniometrically measured active knee-extension test. Forty-two participants (18–25 years old) were assigned to either a control, static, or hold-relax training group. Participants were stretched four times a week over a 6-week period, with four 30-s stretches per session using a straight-leg-raise method on the FlexAbility LE1000. It was determined that both static and hold-relax techniques significantly improved hamstring flexibility (ISLR: +33.08° ± 9.08° and +35.17° ± 10.39°, respectively). Participants of both techniques reached a plateau in flexibility improvement between Weeks 4 and 5. Thus, static and hold-relax stretching are equally effective in improving hamstring ROM. The FlexAbility LE1000 and the goniometer were both found to be highly reliable. Therefore, either measurement technique could be used successfully to measure hip-flexion ROM.

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Leou-Chyr Lin, Thomas P. Hedman, Shyu-Jye Wang, Michael Huoh and Shih-Youeng Chuang

The goal of this study was to develop a nondestructive radial compression technique and to investigate the viscoelastic behavior of the rat tail disc under repeated radial compression. Rat tail intervertebral disc underwent radial compression relaxation testing and creep testing using a custom-made gravitational creep machine. The axisymmetric viscoelasticity and time-dependent recovery were determined. Different levels of hydration (with or without normal saline spray) were supplied to evaluate the effect of changes in viscoelastic properties. Viscoelasticity was found to be axisymmetric in rat-tail intervertebral discs at four equidistant locations. Complete relaxation recovery was found to take 20 min, whereas creep recovery required 25 min. Hydration was required for obtaining viscoelastic axisymmetry and complete viscoelastic recovery.

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Sebastian Klich, Bogdan Pietraszewski, Matteo Zago, Manuela Galli, Nicola Lovecchio and Adam Kawczyński

, which, in turn, results in nonfunctional kinematics. 6 – 8 Thus, it is necessary to evaluate both morphological and viscoelastic properties of shoulder girdle muscles during fatigue exercise. Overhead sports are also exposed to impingement, caused by both supraspinatus tendon thickness (SST) and

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Isabel Mayer, Matthias W. Hoppe, Jürgen Freiwald, Rafael Heiss, Martin Engelhardt, Casper Grim, Christoph Lutter, Moritz Huettel, Raimund Forst and Thilo Hotfiel

threshold levels. 15 , 25 The connective tissue responses, particularly the stiffness as a viscoelastic property, have been estimated to have a key function in FR. 12 , 26 Prior studies focusing on stiffness, measured by tensiomyography, 27 semielectronic tissue compliance meter, 13 or shear modulus and

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Alissa C. Rhode, Lauren M. Lavelle and David C. Berry

is a 4°C increase that causes an increase in metabolic rate, improved blood flow, reduced muscle spasm and pain, and altered viscoelastic properties of collagen. 1 – 3 These benefits allow a clinician to stretch patients more efficiently because the collagen is more extensible after a 4°C increase

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Thilo Hotfiel, Marion Kellermann, Bernd Swoboda, Dane Wildner, Tobias Golditz, Casper Grim, Martin Raithel, Michael Uder and Rafael Heiss

tissue deformation, and then, tracking pulses are applied to monitor its deformation response. 18 The tissue displacement and the tissue’s deformation response depend on the viscoelastic properties. The propagation speed of shear waves is proportional to the density and to the shear modulus of the

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Tülay Çevik Saldıran, Emine Atıcı, Derya Azim Rezaei, Özgül Öztürk, Burcu Uslu, Burcu Ateş Özcan and Begüm Okudan

Ltd, Tartu, Estonia) is a new digital device that measures objectively viscoelastic properties of skeletal muscles which are defined as muscle tone. 21 The MyotonPRO has already proven to be a reliable, accurate, and sensitive way for the objective and noninvasive measuring muscle mechanical

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Mariam A. Ameer and Qassim I. Muaidi

ASS (prior to the activity) may contribute to changes in muscle tendon unit (MTU) 4 and neural reaction. 5 , 10 The MTU stiffness is a viscoelastic property of the muscle, tendon, and other surrounding connective tissues, which can detect the rapidity of muscle force transmission to the skeletal

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Michael E. Hales and John D. Johnson II

large performance gain. This is not necessarily the case because energy transfer occurring outside an optimal range would have an adverse effect on performance due to the viscoelastic property of human tissue. 2 , 3 Ultimately, a surface with less energy return requires a greater amount of work by the

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Scott W. Cheatham and Morey J. Kolber

into mechanical and neurophysiological. Mechanical theory suggests that the viscoelastic properties of fascia are affected by the pressure of the foam roll. Other mechanisms involved may include reduced thixotropy, myofascial restriction and trigger points, fluid changes, cellular responses, and