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Maurice R. Yeadon, Pui W. Kong and Mark A. King

This study used kinematic data on springboard diving performances to estimate viscoelastic parameters of a planar model of a springboard and diver with wobbling masses in the trunk, thigh, and calf segments and spring dampers acting at the heel, ball, and toe of the foot segment. A subject-specific angle-driven eight-segment model was used with an optimization algorithm to determine viscoelastic parameter values by matching simulations to four diving performances. Using the parameters determined from the matching of a single dive in a simulation of another dive resulted in up to 31% difference between simulation and performance, indicating the danger of using too small a set of kinematic data. However, using four dives in a combined matching process to obtain a common set of parameters resulted in a mean difference of 8.6%. Because these four dives included very different rotational requirements, it is anticipated that the combined parameter set can be used with other dives from these two groups.

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Kathryn E. Keenan, Saikat Pal, Derek P. Lindsey, Thor F. Besier and Gary S. Beaupre

Cartilage material properties provide important insights into joint health, and cartilage material models are used in whole-joint finite element models. Although the biphasic model representing experimental creep indentation tests is commonly used to characterize cartilage, cartilage short-term response to loading is generally not characterized using the biphasic model. The purpose of this study was to determine the short-term and equilibrium material properties of human patella cartilage using a viscoelastic model representation of creep indentation tests. We performed 24 experimental creep indentation tests from 14 human patellar specimens ranging in age from 20 to 90 years (median age 61 years). We used a finite element model to reproduce the experimental tests and determined cartilage material properties from viscoelastic and biphasic representations of cartilage. The viscoelastic model consistently provided excellent representation of the short-term and equilibrium creep displacements. We determined initial elastic modulus, equilibrium elastic modulus, and equilibrium Poisson’s ratio using the viscoelastic model. The viscoelastic model can represent the short-term and equilibrium response of cartilage and may easily be implemented in whole-joint finite element models.

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Leou-Chyr Lin, Thomas P. Hedman, Shyu-Jye Wang, Michael Huoh and Shih-Youeng Chuang

The goal of this study was to develop a nondestructive radial compression technique and to investigate the viscoelastic behavior of the rat tail disc under repeated radial compression. Rat tail intervertebral disc underwent radial compression relaxation testing and creep testing using a custom-made gravitational creep machine. The axisymmetric viscoelasticity and time-dependent recovery were determined. Different levels of hydration (with or without normal saline spray) were supplied to evaluate the effect of changes in viscoelastic properties. Viscoelasticity was found to be axisymmetric in rat-tail intervertebral discs at four equidistant locations. Complete relaxation recovery was found to take 20 min, whereas creep recovery required 25 min. Hydration was required for obtaining viscoelastic axisymmetry and complete viscoelastic recovery.

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Chris Mills, Matthew T.G. Pain and Maurice R. Yeadon

Landing mats that can undergo a large amount of area deformation are now essential for the safe completion of landings in gymnastics. The objective of this study was to develop an analytical model of a landing mat that reproduces the key characteristics of the mat-ground force during impact with minimal simulation run time. A force plate and two high-speed video cameras were used to record the mat deformation during vertical drop testing of a 24-kg impactor. Four increasingly complex point mass spring-damper models, from a single mass spring-damper system, Model 1, to a 3-layer mass spring-damper system, Model 4, were constructed using Matlab to model the mat's behavior during impact. A fifth model composed of a 3-layer mass spring-damper system was developed using visual Nastran 4D. The results showed that Models 4 and 5 were able to match the loading phase of the impact with simulation times of less than 1 second for Model 4 and 28 seconds for Model 5. Both Models 4 and 5 successfully reproduced the key force-time characteristics of the mat-ground interface, such as peak forces, time of peak forces, interpeak minima and initial rates of loading, and could be incorporated into a gymnast-mat model.

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Natália Barros Beltrão, Camila Ximenes Santos, Valéria Mayaly Alves de Oliveira, André Luiz Torres Pirauá, David Behm, Ana Carolina Rodarti Pitangui and Rodrigo Cappato de Araújo

outcome) and muscle resistance (stiffness) and viscoelastic stress relaxation (VSR) (secondary outcomes) were assessed, in that order. The Hardy and Rejeski’s 20 Feeling Scale was applied at the initial, intermediate, and final testing periods to evaluate the affective response of the participants

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Camila Ximenes Santos, Natália Barros Beltrão, André Luiz Torres Pirauá, João Luiz Quagliotti Durigan, David Behm and Rodrigo Cappato de Araújo

, viscoelastic stress relaxation (VSR), pennation angle, and fascicle length. As one examiner was responsible for evaluations and the other researcher was responsible for the training program, the study is characterized as a single-blinded study. Before the beginning of the data collection, the examiners were

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Genki Hatano, Shigeyuki Suzuki, Shingo Matsuo, Satoshi Kataura, Kazuaki Yokoi, Taizan Fukaya, Mitsuhiro Fujiwara, Yuji Asai and Masahiro Iwata

technique commonly used to acutely increase ROM. 11 – 14 The proposed mechanisms for this include an increased stretch tolerance due to altered sensation 12 , 14 , 15 and a change in the stiffness/viscoelastic properties of the muscle–tendon unit, 12 – 14 , 16 – 18 which result in improved movement and

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Kazem Malmir, Gholam Reza Olyaei, Saeed Talebian and Ali Ashraf Jamshidi


Cyclic movements and muscle fatigue may result in musculoskeletal injuries by inducing changes in neuromuscular control. Ankle frontal-plane neuromuscular control has rarely been studied in spite of its importance.


To compare the effects of peroneal muscle fatigue and a cyclic passive-inversion (CPI) protocol on ankle neuromuscular control during a lateral hop.


Quasi-experimental, repeated measures.


University laboratory.


22 recreationally active, healthy men with no history of ankle sprain or giving way.


Participants performed a lateral hop before and after 2 interventions on a Biodex dynamometer. They were randomly assigned to intervention order and interventions were 1 wk apart. A passive intervention included 40 CPIs at 5°/s through 80% of maximum range of motion, and a fatigue intervention involved an isometric eversion at 40% of the maximal voluntary isometric contraction until the torque decreased to 50% of its initial value.

Main Outcome Measures:

Median frequency of the peroneus longus during the fatigue protocol, energy absorption by the viscoelastic tissues during the CPI protocol, and feedforward onset and reaction time of the peroneus longus during landing.


A significant fall in median frequency (P < .05) and a significant decrease in energy absorption (P < .05) confirmed fatigue and a change in viscoelastic behavior, respectively. There was a significant main effect of condition on feedforward onset and reaction time (P < .05). No significant main effect of intervention or intervention × condition interaction was noted (P > .05). There was a significant difference between pre- and postintervention measures (P < .0125), but no significant difference was found between postintervention measures (P > .0125).


Both fatigue and the CPI may similarly impair ankle neuromuscular control. Thus, in prolonged sports competitions and exercises, the ankle may be injured due to either fatigue or changes in the biomechanical properties of the viscoelastic tissues.

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Zeike A. Taylor and Karol Miller

An important and longstanding field of research in orthopedic biomechanics is the elucidation and mathematical modeling of the mechanical response of cartilaginous tissues. Traditional approaches have treated such tissues as continua and have described their mechanical response in terms of macroscopic models borrowed from solid mechanics. The most important of such models are the biphasic and single-phase viscoelastic models, and the many variations thereof. These models have reached a high level of maturity and have been successful in describing a wide range of phenomena. An alternative approach that has received considerable recent interest, both in orthopedic biomechanics and in other fields, is the description of mechanical response based on consideration of a tissue's structure—so-called microstructural modeling. Examples of microstructurally based approaches include fibril-reinforced biphasic models and homogenization approaches. A review of both macroscopic and microstructural constitutive models is given in the present work.

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Rochelle Llewelyn Nicholls, Karol Miller and Bruce C. Elliott

Regulating ball response to impact is one way to control ball exit velocity in baseball. This is necessary to reduce injuries to defensive players and maintain the balance between offense and defense in the game. This paper presents a model for baseball velocity-dependent behavior. Force-displacement data were obtained using quasi-static compression tests to 50% of ball diameter (n = 70 baseballs). The force-displacement curves for a very stiff baseball (Model B) and a softer type (Model C) were characterized by a Mooney-Rivlin model using implicit finite element analysis (ANSYS software, version 6.1). Agreement between experimental and numerical results was excellent for both Model B (C10 = 0, C01 = 3.7e6 Pa) and Model C (C10 = 0, C01 = 2.6e6 Pa). However, this material model was not available in the ANSYS/LSDYNA explicit dynamic software (version 6.1) used to quantify the transient behavior of the ball. Therefore the modeling process was begun again using a linear viscoelastic material. G∞, the long-term shear modulus of the material, was determined by the same implicit FEA procedure. Explicit FEA was used to quantify the time-dependent response of each ball in terms of instantaneous shear modulus (G0) and a decay term (β). The results were evaluated with respect to published experimental data for the ball coefficient of restitution at five velocities (13.4–40.2 ms–1) and were in agreement with the experimental values. The model forms the basis for future research on baseball response to impact with the bat.