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Luis Columna, Margarita Fernández-Vivó, Lauren Lieberman, and Katrina Arndt

Background:

Nationwide research indicates that children with visual impairment have limited participation in recreational and sport activities than their peers. This is due in part to the lack of recreational opportunities and facilities, as well as a lack of awareness by parents of how and where their children can participate. The purpose of the current study was to explore the experiences of Latino families of children with visual impairments living in Guatemala regarding physical recreation. Participants were Latino parents (N = 13) who have children with visual impairments recruited from a sport camp.

Methods:

Qualitative data were gathered through one-on-one interviews that were transcribed and analyzed through a constant comparative analysis.

Results:

Participating Latino families who resided in Guatemala City participated at least once a month in low budget recreational activities with their children with visual impairments. Activities were mostly done in local surroundings and led mainly by their mother. Benefits identified by the participants related to relaxation, socialization, and sense of independence, with minimal mention of health related benefits.

Conclusions:

There is a need to disseminate information to the Latino community with children with visual impairments regarding the multiple benefits that arise from being involved in recreational physical activities.

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Eva A. Jaarsma, Rienk Dekker, Steven A. Koopmans, Pieter U. Dijkstra, and Jan H.B. Geertzen

We examined barriers to and facilitators of sports participation in people with visual impairments. Participants registered at Royal Visio, Bartiméus, and the Eye Association were invited to complete a questionnaire (telephone or online). Six hundred forty-eight of the invited participants (13%) completed the questionnaire, and 63% of the respondents reported sports participation. Walking (43%), fitness (34%), and cycling (34%) were frequently mentioned sports. Costs, lack of peers/buddies, and visual impairment were negatively associated with sports participation, whereas higher education and computer (software) use were positively associated. The most important personal barrier was visual impairment; transport was the most important environmental barrier. Active participants also mentioned dependence on others as a personal barrier. The most important personal facilitators were health, fun, and social contacts; support from family was the most important environmental facilitator. To improve sports participation in people with visual impairments, the emphasis in a sports program should be on the positive aspects of sports, such as fun, health, and social contacts.

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Carlos M. Cervantes and David L. Porretta

The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of an after school physical activity intervention on adolescents with visual impairments within the context of Social Cognitive Theory. Four adolescents with visual impairments (1 female, 3 males) between 14 and 19 years of age from a residential school for the blind served as participants. We used a range-bound changing criterion single-subject design. Physical activity was measured using ActiGraph accelerometers. Questionnaires were used to obtain information on selected social cognitive theory constructs. Results show that the intervention exerted functional control over the target behaviors (e.g., leisure-time physical activity) during intervention phases. Similarly, changes in scores for selected social cognitive constructs, in particular for outcome expectancy value, suggest a positive relationship between those constructs and physical activity behavior. No maintenance effects were observed.

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Ali Brian, Sally Taunton, Lauren J. Lieberman, Pamela Haibach-Beach, John Foley, and Sara Santarossa

, DeMartelaer, Samaey, & Andries, 2008 ), which was the original intent of its developers ( Ulrich, 1985 , 2000 ). Given the frequency and severity of gross motor delays for individuals with visual impairments ( Haegele, Brian, & Goodway, 2015 ; Haibach, Wagner, & Lieberman, 2014 ; Houwen, Hartman

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T.N. Kirk, Justin A. Haegele, and Xihe Zhu

., 2013 ; Vallance et al., 2011 ; Zhai et al., 2015 ) and anxiety (e.g.,  Goodwin, 2003 ; Stubbs et al., 2017 ). Despite this, reports indicate that the majority of adults with visual impairments do not typically meet physical activity guidelines ( Carroll et al., 2014 ; Holbrook et al., 2009

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Justin A. Haegele and T. Nicole Kirk

physical education, such as poorly trained teachers and paraeducators, a lack of support, and a lack of adapted equipment ( Perkins, Columna, Lieberman, & Bailey, 2013 ). Because of these factors, differences between youth with visual impairments and others tend to be emphasized during physical education

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Justin A. Haegele, Takahiro Sato, Xihe Zhu, and T. Nicole Kirk

In recent years, several studies have explored the experiential perspectives of youth with visual impairments (i.e., those with low vision and complete blindness) toward their physical education experiences ( de Schipper, Lieberman, & Moody, 2017 ; Haegele, Sato, Zhu, & Avery, 2017 ; Haegele

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Justin A. Haegele, Samuel R. Hodge, Xihe Zhu, Steven K. Holland, and Wesley J. Wilson

disability group (i.e., individuals with visual impairments), focusing on their viewpoints toward inclusion and their experiences in integrated physical education. In recent years, inquiry examining the experiences of individuals with visual impairments in physical education has become more common ( Haegele

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Xihe Zhu and Justin A. Haegele

used in adapted physical activity research examining physical activity among individuals with disabilities ( Cervantes & Porretta, 2010 ; Leung, Siebert, & Yun, 2017 ), including those with visual impairments ( Ayvazoglu, Oh, & Kozub, 2006 ; Brian et al., 2019 ; Cervantes & Porretta, 2013 ; Haegele

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Jeffrey J. Martin, Erin E. Snapp, E. Whitney G. Moore, Lauren J. Lieberman, Ellen Armstrong, and Staci Mannella

metabolic disorders ( Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2017 ). It is also well documented that youth do not engage in enough physical activity (PA), and conversely, spend too much time being sedentary. Youth with visual impairments (VIs) are even less likely to maintain healthy levels of PA and