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Functional Control of Stance in Older Adults

Thomas A. Stoffregen

It is widely assumed that healthy aging includes a decline in the stability of standing body sway. Certainly, the spatial magnitude of postural sway increases with age. However, the interpretation of this effect as a decline in the ability to stabilize posture rests, in part, on assumptions about the nature and definition of stability in stance. In this article, I review data on the control of standing posture in healthy older adults. I focus on a growing list of studies that demonstrate the retention, among healthy older adults, of the ability functionally to modulate postural sway in support of “suprapostural” activities. I address laboratory research, but also field studies carried out in a setting that dramatically challenges the control of stance: life on ships at sea. I argue that it may be possible, and certainly will be useful, to address directly the functional control of stance in older adults.

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Correlation of Head Impact Exposures With Vestibulo-Ocular Assessments

Theresa L. Miyashita and Paul A. Ullucci

Context: Managing a concussion injury should involve the incorporation of a multifaceted approach, including a vision assessment. The frontoparietal circuits and subcortical nuclei are susceptible to trauma from a concussion injury, leading to dysfunction of the vestibulo-ocular system. Research investigating the effect of cumulative subconcussive impacts on neurological function is still in its infancy, but repetitive head impacts may result in vestibular system dysfunction. This dysfunction could create visual deficits, predisposing the individual to further head trauma. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the cumulative effect of subconcussive impacts on minimum perception time, static visual acuity, gaze stability, and dynamic visual acuity scores. Design: Prospective cohort. Setting: Division I university. Patients: Thirty-three Division I men’s lacrosse players (age = 19.52 [1.20] y). Intervention: Competitive lacrosse season. Main Outcome Measures: At the beginning and end of the season, the players completed a vestibulo-ocular reflex assessment, using the InVision system by Neurocom® to assess perception, static acuity, gaze stability, and dynamic visual acuity. Score differentials were correlated with the head impact exposure data collected via instrumented helmets. Results: A significant correlation was found between change in perception scores and total number of head impacts (r = .54), and between changes in dynamic visual acuity loss scores on the rightside and maximum rotational acceleration (r = .36). No statistical differences were found between preseason and postseason vestibulo-ocular reflex variables. Conclusions: Cumulative subconcussive impacts may negatively affect vestibulo-ocular reflex scores, resulting in decreased visual performance. This decrease in vestibulo-ocular function may place the athlete at risk of sustaining additional head impacts or other injuries.

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Differential Eye Movements and Visual Contrast Acuity in National Collegiate Athletic Association Athletes

Ali S. Tejani, Bert B. Vargas, Emily F. Middleton, and Mu Huang

high-contrast, central visual function. 5 , 7 More specifically, visual acuity assessment does not capture alterations in visual performance at lower contrasts that may be found in tasks of daily life, including facial recognition, reading, and working in low-lit conditions. 8 Previous studies have

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Stroboscopic Eyewear Applied During Warm-Up Does Not Provide Additional Benefits to the Sport-Specific Reaction Speed in Highly Trained Table Tennis Athletes

Paul Strainchamps, Martin Ostermann, Andreas Mierau, and Thorben Hülsdünker

: vision and on-field performance: a critical review of visual assessment and training studies with athletes . Optom Vis Sci . 2021 ; 98 ( 7 ): 723 – 731 . PubMed ID: 34328451 doi:10.1097/OPX.0000000000001729 4. Erickson GB . Topical review: visual performance assessments for sport . Optom Vis Sci

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Multifractal Analysis Differentiates Postural Sway in Obese and Nonobese Children

Philip W. Fink, Sarah P. Shultz, Eva D’Hondt, Matthieu Lenoir, and Andrew P. Hills

modulate scaling in synchronization behaviors . Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, 44 ( 1 ), 160 – 168 . doi:10.1016/j.chaos.2011.01.005 10.1016/j.chaos.2011.01.005 Stoffregen , T.A. , Pagulayan , R.J. , Bardy , B.G. , & Hettinger , L.J. ( 2000 ). Modulating postural control to facilitate visual

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The Effect of Holding an Object on Postural Stability and Suprapostural Task Performance

Joshua J. Liddy, Amanda J. Arnold, HyeYoung Cho, Nathaniel L. Romine, and Jeffrey M. Haddad

): 1641 – 1658 . doi:10.1037/0096-1523.25.6.1641 10.1037/0096-1523.25.6.1641 12. Stoffregen TA , Pagulayan RJ , Bardy BG , Hettinger LJ . Modulating postural control to facilitate visual performance . Hum Mov Sci . 2000 ; 19 ( 2 ): 203 – 220 . doi:10.1016/S0167-9457(00)00009-9 10.1016/S0167

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Postural Control Profiles of Typically Developing Children From 6 to 12 Years old: An Approach Using Self-Organizing Maps

Xavier García-Massó, Isaac Estevan, Roberto Izquierdo-Herrera, Israel Villarrasa-Sapiña, and Luis-Millan Gonzalez

.1532-5415.1999.tb04584.x 10.1111/j.1532-5415.1999.tb04584.x Stoffregen , T.A. , Pagulayan , R.J. , Bardy , B.G. , & Hettinger , L.J. ( 2000 ). Modulating postural control to facilitate visual performance . Human Movement Science, 19 ( 2 ), 203 – 220 . doi:10.1016/S0167-9457(00)00009-9 10

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Integrated Sport Psychology Support: A Case Study in Motor Sport

Emma Mosley, Zöe L. Wimshurst, and Emma Kavanagh

-paced breathing was confirmed by HRV data (RMSSD) and visual observation of respiration rate, which was determined at the beginning of the intervention. This was also successfully applied to a number of practical sessions wherein this has a direct impact on improving visual performance (i.e., improved overall

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Superior Changes in Jump, Sprint, and Change-of-Direction Performance but Not Maximal Strength Following 6 Weeks of Velocity-Based Training Compared With 1-Repetition-Maximum Percentage-Based Training

Harry G. Banyard, James J. Tufano, Jonathon J.S. Weakley, Sam Wu, Ivan Jukic, and Kazunori Nosaka

. 2019 ; 33 ( 9 ): 2420 – 2425 . PubMed ID: 28704314 doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000002133 10.1519/JSC.0000000000002133 28704314 7. Wilson KM , de Joux N , Head J , Helton W , Dang J , Weakley JJS . Presenting objective visual performance feedback over multiple sets of resistance exercise

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A Narrative Literature Review About the Role of Microsaccades in Sports

Alessandro Piras and Milena Raffi

detailed assessment of visual performance may help to acknowledge potential elite skills and that vision training offers a means to further improve performance. The extent to which foveal versus peripheral visual information contributes to microsaccade generation remains unclear. Microsaccade directions