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Thomas A. Stoffregen

It is widely assumed that healthy aging includes a decline in the stability of standing body sway. Certainly, the spatial magnitude of postural sway increases with age. However, the interpretation of this effect as a decline in the ability to stabilize posture rests, in part, on assumptions about the nature and definition of stability in stance. In this article, I review data on the control of standing posture in healthy older adults. I focus on a growing list of studies that demonstrate the retention, among healthy older adults, of the ability functionally to modulate postural sway in support of “suprapostural” activities. I address laboratory research, but also field studies carried out in a setting that dramatically challenges the control of stance: life on ships at sea. I argue that it may be possible, and certainly will be useful, to address directly the functional control of stance in older adults.

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Theresa L. Miyashita and Paul A. Ullucci

Context: Managing a concussion injury should involve the incorporation of a multifaceted approach, including a vision assessment. The frontoparietal circuits and subcortical nuclei are susceptible to trauma from a concussion injury, leading to dysfunction of the vestibulo-ocular system. Research investigating the effect of cumulative subconcussive impacts on neurological function is still in its infancy, but repetitive head impacts may result in vestibular system dysfunction. This dysfunction could create visual deficits, predisposing the individual to further head trauma. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the cumulative effect of subconcussive impacts on minimum perception time, static visual acuity, gaze stability, and dynamic visual acuity scores. Design: Prospective cohort. Setting: Division I university. Patients: Thirty-three Division I men’s lacrosse players (age = 19.52 [1.20] y). Intervention: Competitive lacrosse season. Main Outcome Measures: At the beginning and end of the season, the players completed a vestibulo-ocular reflex assessment, using the InVision system by Neurocom® to assess perception, static acuity, gaze stability, and dynamic visual acuity. Score differentials were correlated with the head impact exposure data collected via instrumented helmets. Results: A significant correlation was found between change in perception scores and total number of head impacts (r = .54), and between changes in dynamic visual acuity loss scores on the rightside and maximum rotational acceleration (r = .36). No statistical differences were found between preseason and postseason vestibulo-ocular reflex variables. Conclusions: Cumulative subconcussive impacts may negatively affect vestibulo-ocular reflex scores, resulting in decreased visual performance. This decrease in vestibulo-ocular function may place the athlete at risk of sustaining additional head impacts or other injuries.

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Ali S. Tejani, Bert B. Vargas, Emily F. Middleton, and Mu Huang

high-contrast, central visual function. 5 , 7 More specifically, visual acuity assessment does not capture alterations in visual performance at lower contrasts that may be found in tasks of daily life, including facial recognition, reading, and working in low-lit conditions. 8 Previous studies have

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Philip W. Fink, Sarah P. Shultz, Eva D’Hondt, Matthieu Lenoir, and Andrew P. Hills

modulate scaling in synchronization behaviors . Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, 44 ( 1 ), 160 – 168 . doi:10.1016/j.chaos.2011.01.005 10.1016/j.chaos.2011.01.005 Stoffregen , T.A. , Pagulayan , R.J. , Bardy , B.G. , & Hettinger , L.J. ( 2000 ). Modulating postural control to facilitate visual

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Joshua J. Liddy, Amanda J. Arnold, HyeYoung Cho, Nathaniel L. Romine, and Jeffrey M. Haddad

): 1641 – 1658 . doi:10.1037/0096-1523.25.6.1641 10.1037/0096-1523.25.6.1641 12. Stoffregen TA , Pagulayan RJ , Bardy BG , Hettinger LJ . Modulating postural control to facilitate visual performance . Hum Mov Sci . 2000 ; 19 ( 2 ): 203 – 220 . doi:10.1016/S0167-9457(00)00009-9 10.1016/S0167

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Xavier García-Massó, Isaac Estevan, Roberto Izquierdo-Herrera, Israel Villarrasa-Sapiña, and Luis-Millan Gonzalez

.1532-5415.1999.tb04584.x 10.1111/j.1532-5415.1999.tb04584.x Stoffregen , T.A. , Pagulayan , R.J. , Bardy , B.G. , & Hettinger , L.J. ( 2000 ). Modulating postural control to facilitate visual performance . Human Movement Science, 19 ( 2 ), 203 – 220 . doi:10.1016/S0167-9457(00)00009-9 10

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Harry G. Banyard, James J. Tufano, Jonathon J.S. Weakley, Sam Wu, Ivan Jukic, and Kazunori Nosaka

. 2019 ; 33 ( 9 ): 2420 – 2425 . PubMed ID: 28704314 doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000002133 10.1519/JSC.0000000000002133 28704314 7. Wilson KM , de Joux N , Head J , Helton W , Dang J , Weakley JJS . Presenting objective visual performance feedback over multiple sets of resistance exercise

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Adam J. Wells and Bri-ana D.I. Johnson

, Molitor WL . Pilot study of an occupational therapy dynavision D2 protocol for enhancement of visual performance among collegiate athletes . Ann Int Occup Ther . 2019 ; 2 ( 2 ): 69 – 78 . doi:10.3928/24761222-20190218-02 10.3928/24761222-20190218-02 13. Gray HN , Williams RM , Valovich McLeod

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Emma Mosley, Zöe L. Wimshurst, and Emma Kavanagh

-paced breathing was confirmed by HRV data (RMSSD) and visual observation of respiration rate, which was determined at the beginning of the intervention. This was also successfully applied to a number of practical sessions wherein this has a direct impact on improving visual performance (i.e., improved overall

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Danica Janicijevic and Amador Garcia-Ramos

computerized eye-tracking reaction time tests in non-athletes, athletes, and individuals with traumatic brain injury . Optometry & Visual Performance, 6 ( 3 ), 119 – 129 . Lemmink , K.A.P.M. , & Visscher , C. ( 2005 ). Effect of intermittent exercise on multiple-choice reaction times of soccer players