Energy intakes of adults with spinal cord injury (SCI) have been reported to be relatively low, with many micronutrients below recommended amounts, but little is known about the diets of athletes with SCI. The purpose of this cross-sectional, observational study was to assess energy intakes and estimate the prevalence of dietary inadequacy in a sample of elite Canadian athletes with SCI (n = 32). Three-day self-reported food diaries completed at home and training camp were analyzed for energy (kcal), macronutrients, vitamins, and minerals and compared with the dietary reference intakes (DRIs). The prevalence of nutrient inadequacy was estimated by the proportion of athletes with mean intakes below the estimated average requirement (EAR). Energy intakes were 2,156 ± 431 kcal for men and 1,991 ± 510 kcal for women. Macronutrient intakes were within the acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges. While at training camp, >25% of men had intakes below the EAR for calcium, magnesium, zinc, riboflavin, folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin D. Thiamin, riboflavin, calcium, and vitamin D intakes were higher at home than training camp. Over 25% of women had intakes below the EAR for calcium, magnesium, folate, and vitamin D, with no significant differences in mean intakes between home and training camp. Vitamin/mineral supplement use significantly increased men’s intakes of most nutrients but did not affect prevalence of inadequacy. Women’s intakes did not change significantly with vitamin/mineral supplementation. These results demonstrate that athletes with SCI are at risk for several nutrient inadequacies relative to the DRIs.
Jennifer L. Krempien and Susan I. Barr
Kathe A. Gahel, Adrienne Aldous, and Chad Edgington
Food and fluid intake of 2 male cyclists was assessed to describe dietary intakes of athletes participating in an endurance ride. Cyclists rode 15 to 18 hr each day for 10 days to travel 2,050 miles on the original Pony Express Trail over seven major mountain ranges. Food and fluids were weighed or measured by researchers. Average kilocalorie intake was 7,125 ± 340 (M ± SEM), or 113 kcal/kg/day. Percentages of protein, carbohydrate, and fat kilocalories were 10, 63, and 27, respectively, with 44% of the carbohydrate kilocalories from simple sugars, cookies, sweetened drinks, and candy. Vitamin and mineral intakes were two to three times the RDA for most vitamins and minerals. Total fluid intake averaged 10.5 L per day with an average of 620 ml/hr of riding time. Of fluid intake, 54% was water. Cyclists traveling long distances need a variety of high-calorie foods and ample amounts of fluids to maintain performance for this type of event.
Robert E. Keith, Michael H. Stone, Ralph E. Carson, Robert G. Lefavi, and Steven J. Fleck
Fourteen trained male anabolic steroid-using bodybuilders (SBBs) (19-41 years) were recruited for the study. Three-day diet records were obtained from SBBs and analyzed. A resting venous blood sample was drawn, and serum/ plasma was subsequently analyzed for various nutritionally related factors. Results showed that mean dietary energy (4,469 ± 1,406 kcal), protein (252 ± 109 g), and vitamin and mineral intakes of SBBs greatly exceeded U.S. Recommended Dietary Allowances. Dietary cholesterol intake was 2.8 times the recommended levels. Mean serum/plasma nutrient concentrations of SBBs were within normal range. However, individual SBBs had a number of serum/ plasma values outside of the normal or recommended range, the most notable of which was hypercalcemia, which was present in 42% of SBBs. Serum/plasma lipids were such as to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease in these subjects.
Wade L. Knez and Jonathan M. Peake
Ultraendurance exercise training places large energy demands on athletes and causes a high turnover of vitamins through sweat losses, metabolism, and the musculoskeletal repair process. Ultraendurance athletes may not consume sufficient quantities or quality of food in their diet to meet these needs. Consequently, they may use oral vitamin and mineral supplements to maintain their health and performance. We assessed the vitamin and mineral intake of ultraendurance athletes in their regular diet, in addition to oral vitamin and mineral supplements. Thirty-seven ultraendurance triathletes (24 men and 13 women) completed a 7-day nutrition diary including a questionnaire to determine nutrition adequacy and supplement intake. Compared with dietary reference intakes for the general population, both male and female triathletes met or exceeded all except for vitamin D. In addition, female athletes consumed slightly less than the recommended daily intake for folate and potassium; however, the difference was trivial. Over 60% of the athletes reported using vitamin supplements, of which vitamin C (97.5%), vitamin E (78.3%), and multivitamins (52.2%) were the most commonly used supplements. Almost half (47.8%) the athletes who used supplements did so to prevent or reduce cold symptoms. Only 1 athlete used supplements on formal medical advice. Vitamin C and E supplementation was common in ultraendurance triathletes, despite no evidence of dietary deficiency in these 2 vitamins.
Sun H. Kim and Carl L. Keen
An excessive use of vitamin/mineral supplements is considered by many to be a common health problem. We surveyed 1,355 adolescent boys and girls attending athletic high schools in Korea for their usage patterns of vitamin/mineral supplements. The usage rate of the vitamin/mineral supplements was 35.8%. The most favored supplements were vitamin C, multivitamins, and calcium. The reasons most cited for taking supplements were "to recover from fatigue," and "to maintain health." Vitamin and mineral intakes occurred over a wide range; mean intake values were typically higher than the Korean RDA. Vitamins B , B12 and C were consumed in very high amounts at 29.7,17.9 and 11.1 times the Korean RDA, respectively. When the intakes of nutrients from supplements and diet were combined, it was observed that the intakes of niacin, folic acid, vitamin C, and iron exceeded levels that have been proposed as upper safe limits. The above data underscore the need to provide sound nutritional education to athletic adolescents and their coaches with respect to the use of vitamin/ mineral supplements and the links between adequate diet, good health, and physical performance.
D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Kathleen Woolf, and Louise Burke
protocol. Failing to do so may compromise the effectiveness of the supplementation protocol and could lead to excess vitamin and mineral intakes and/or food-drug interactions. This paper summarizes the comprehensive assessment of an individual athlete’s nutritional status, using the traditional “A