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Carlo Massaroni, Eugenio Cassetta, and Sergio Silvestri

Respiratory parameters can be noninvasively evaluated by using motion capture systems. 1 These systems, primarily used in gait analysis, 2 are also capable of measuring tidal volumes and volume changes in standing position by tracking the coordinates of 89 markers placed on the skin

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Mathieu Lacome, Simon Avrillon, Yannick Cholley, Ben M. Simpson, Gael Guilhem, and Martin Buchheit

large-to-very large increases in knee-flexor strength (13%–78%) in recreational athletes. 11 Very large increases in BFlh fascicle length (∼14%, range 5%–34%) were also reported following eccentric training. 12 However, these protocols included high-volume training (2–3 times/wk, 30–50 repetitions

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Milos Mallol, David J. Bentley, Lynda Norton, Kevin Norton, Gaizka Mejuto, and Javier Yanci

As athletes strive to improve physical fitness and performance, there is greater pressure to push the boundaries of exercise training. This often manifests itself as increased training volume, especially training time, but also, for example, incorporation of cross-training and specificity of

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Danny M. Pincivero, Rachael R. Polen, and Brittany N. Byrd

The ability to predict force production from an isolated muscle (or muscle group) has been examined using a range of different anthropometric measurement modalities. 1 – 5 Perhaps the most widely used techniques to derive accurate estimates of muscle cross-sectional area and volume is magnetic

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André L. Estrela, Aline Zaparte, Jeferson D. da Silva, José Cláudio Moreira, James E. Turner, and Moisés E. Bauer

changes in immunological, inflammatory, and hormonal parameters that can be measured at rest, over the course of a day, or in response to acute exercise ( Gleeson, 2002 ; Kellmann, 2010 ; Meeusen et al., 2013 ). Although the effects of a high volume of training have been well described in young adults

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Henri Meric, Frédéric Lofaso, Line Falaize, and Didier Pradon

Plethysmography is an indispensable component of clinical lung function testing. However, lung volume measurement in the supine position using an optoelectronic system requires the placement of reflective markers on the anterior and lateral torso surface. The conventional method computes breath-by-breath changes in the volume between the markers and the bed, which serves as the reference plane. In contrast, the surface method consists of measuring the volume delineated by the surface area of the marker network at the onset and end of inspiration. We compared these 2 methods to spirometry during spontaneous breathing in 11 healthy volunteers and in 14 patients receiving routine visits for neuromuscular disease. Bland-Altman plots showed that agreement with spirometry was better for the surface method that the conventional method. Our results open up prospects for integrating these methods in the development of new devices.

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Ralph Beneke, Renate M. Leithäuser, and Oliver Ochentel

A link between lactate and muscular exercise was seen already more than 200 years ago. The blood lactate concentration (BLC) is sensitive to changes in exercise intensity and duration. Multiple BLC threshold concepts define different points on the BLC power curve during various tests with increasing power (INCP). The INCP test results are affected by the increase in power over time. The maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) is measured during a series of prolonged constant power (CP) tests. It detects the highest aerobic power without metabolic energy from continuing net lactate production, which is usually sustainable for 30 to 60 min. BLC threshold and MLSS power are highly correlated with the maximum aerobic power and athletic endurance performance. The idea that training at threshold intensity is particularly effective has no evidence. Three BLC-orientated intensity domains have been established: (1) training up to an intensity at which the BLC clearly exceeds resting BLC, light- and moderate-intensity training focusing on active regeneration or high-volume endurance training (Intensity < Threshold); (2) heavy endurance training at work rates up to MLSS intensity (Threshold ≤ Intensity ≤ MLSS); and (3) severe exercise intensity training between MLSS and maximum oxygen uptake intensity mostly organized as interval and tempo work (Intensity > MLSS). High-performance endurance athletes combining very high training volume with high aerobic power dedicate 70 to 90% of their training to intensity domain 1 (Intensity < Threshold) in order to keep glycogen homeostasis within sustainable limits.

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Samuel R. Heaselgrave, Joe Blacker, Benoit Smeuninx, James McKendry, and Leigh Breen

thought to play a more prominent role. 4 Manipulation of RT variables, such as intensity, 5 volume, 6 frequency, 7 interset rest period, 8 contraction type, 9 and time under tension, 10 can alter the intracellular signaling and muscle protein synthesis (MPS) response to RT. 11 Thus, understanding

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Frank Nugent, Thomas Comyns, Alan Nevill, and Giles D. Warrington

that large amounts of practice, typically around 11 to 20 hours per week, are required to develop efficient stroke mechanics. 2 , 3 , 7 In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the effects of a low-volume, high-intensity training (HIT) program versus a low-intensity, high-volume training

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Leonardo Shigaki, Cynthia Gobbi Alves Araújo, Mariane Guizeline Calderon, Thais Karoline Cezar Costa, Andreo Fernando Aguiar, Leonardo Oliveira Pena Costa, and Rubens A. da Silva

Different types of exercises (eg, machines, benches, and/or Roman chair) can provide enough stimuli to improve strength and/or endurance of lumbar-extensor muscles, which in return promote better stability and protect the lumbar spine. 8 However, the optimal training volume with regard to back strength and