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Tamara Vehige Calise, William DeJong, Timothy Heren, Chloe Wingerter and Harold W. Kohl III

Background: Older age groups are less likely than their younger counterparts to be regularly active and women are even less active. Ecological models suggest that multiple levels of influence with each level influencing the next level impacts physical activity behaviors. Methods: Hierarchical multiple regressions were used to determine factors within and across the ecological model that predicted both total physical activity and walking for recreation. Findings: The overall predictors of total physical activity were different than those of walking for recreation, with the exception of dog ownership and perceived barriers. Gender and age were significant predictors of walking for recreation, but these associations were not present for total physical activity. Women and older adults walked more for recreation in a mixed-use community, Mueller, (and thus engaged in more total physical activity) compared with men and younger adults. Conclusion: Behavior-specific physical activity as well as total physical activity led to a better understanding of factors that may impact behavior among an overall aging population, especially women. This level of specificity is important in understanding specific factors that are associated with physical activity among vulnerable populations and can help guide the development of tailored, cost-effective, and efficient policies and interventions.

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Thiago Herick Sa, Emanuel Péricles Salvador and Alex Antonio Florindo


Physical inactivity in transportation is negatively related to many health outcomes. However, little is known about the correlates of this condition among people living in regions of low socioeconomic level.


Cross-sectional study aimed to assess factors associated with physical inactivity in transportation among adults in the Eastern Zone of São Paulo, Brazil. Home-based interviews were conducted between May 2007 and January 2008 on a probabilistic sample of the adult population (≥18 years), totaling 368 men and 522 women. Factors associated with physical inactivity in transportation (less than 10 minutes per week of walking or cycling) were assessed using multivariate Poisson regression with hierarchical selection of variables.


Physical inactivity in transportation was associated with the presence of vehicles in the household in men (PR = 2.96) and women (PR = 2.42), with linear trend for both sexes (P < .001 and P = .004, respectively), even after adjusting for age, schooling level and chronic diseases (this last factor, only among women).


Presence of vehicles in the household was associated positively with physical inactivity in transportation, both for men and for women. This should be taken into consideration in drawing up public policies for promoting physical activity.

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Emma Derbyshire

Purpose of the Paper

Previous research has evaluated the prevalence and aetiology of hyponatraemia in athletes, particularly for ultra endurance events. However, few papers have focused specifically on the incidence and effects of hyponatraemia in female athletes. The aim of this paper was to review and collate previous research that has investigated hyponatraemia in female athletes and explain how excessive retention of free fluid may influence female performance and health status.


The most up-to-date and pertinent studies within the literature have been included and summated in this review.


The findings from this overview indicate that women participating in endurance events are particularly susceptible to developing hyponatraemia. It is important that women do not have depleted sodium concentrations prior to an athletic event, hypotonic fluid should not been consumed in excess and carbohydrate solutions (4-8g carbohydrate per 100ml fluid) should be consumed when women participate in intense exercise, lasting for longer than 1 hour. It is fundamentally important that up-to-date rehydration guidelines are imparted to active females and the dangers of over-ingesting fluid need to be emphasized within this vulnerable population.


This paper gives a concise, up-to-date overview on how hyponatraemia can affect female athletic performance and health status.

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Laura Capranica and Mindy L. Millard-Stafford

A prevailing theory (and practical application) is that elite performance requires early childhood skill development and training across various domains, including sport. Debate continues whether children specializing early (ie, training/competition in a single sport) have true advantage compared with those who sample various sports early and specialize in a single sport later (adolescence). Retrospective data and case studies suggest either model yields elite status depending upon the sport category (ie, situational: ball games, martial arts, fencing; quantitative: track and feld, swimming, skiing; or qualitative: gymnastics, diving, figure skating). However, potential risks of early specialization include greater attrition and adverse physical/emotional health outcomes. With the advent of the IOC Youth Olympic Games, increased emphasis on global youth competition has unknown implications but also represents a potential platform for investigation. Modification of youth competition formats should be based upon multidisciplinary research on psycho-physiological responses, and technical-tactical behaviors during competition. The assumption that a simple scaled-down approach of adult competitions facilitates the development of technical/tactical skills of youth athletes is not necessarily substantiated with field-based research. Relatively little evidence exists regarding the long-term effects of rigorous training and competitive schedules on children in specific sports. It is clear that more prospective studies are needed to understand the training dose that optimally develops adaptations in youth without inducing dropout, overtraining syndrome, and/or injury. Such an approach should be sport specific as well as gender based. Until such evidence exists, coaches and sport administrators will continue to rely upon their sport-specific dogma to influence programmatic development of our most vulnerable population.

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Alex C. Gang

event is not being realized among the most vulnerable population of the country’s society. In contrast, the author (Swart) of the chapter on South Africa, the sole country to represent the continent of Africa in this text, cover socioeconomic aspects of sport in the country, such as financing of sport

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International Olympic Committee Expert Group on Dietary Supplements in Athletes

inadequate diet, except as a short-term strategy when nutrient intake is challenged or dietary changes are not possible. Use of products that have been subjected to one of the available quality assurance schemes can help to reduce, but not eliminate, the risk of an inadvertent doping infringement. Vulnerable

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Carrie W. LeCrom, Brendan Dwyer and Gregory Greenhalgh

, other barriers exist that likely contribute to the nascent nature of theory development in SFD. For one, SFD programs, especially those that are focused on youth, are often engaging with vulnerable populations. This presents challenges not only in working with populations responsibly, but also in terms

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Rebekka Pomiersky, Bastian Abel, Christian Werner, André Lacroix, Klaus Pfeiffer, Martina Schäufele and Klaus Hauer

training effects in the intervention phase. In older persons, minor changes in PA, as compared with existing guideline recommendations, still have relevant benefits, such as reduced mortality ( Xue et al., 2012 ), which may even be more pronounced in a vulnerable population at high risk of activity

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Kadhiresan R. Murugappan, Michael N. Cocchi, Somnath Bose, Sara E. Neves, Charles H. Cook, Todd Sarge, Shahzad Shaefi and Akiva Leibowitz

of exertional death in patients with sickle cell trait ( Thompson, 2013 ). We argue that combat sports athletes represent a more vulnerable population due to dehydration and electrolyte disturbances related to weight cutting, and therefore they would more likely benefit from screening. We estimate

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Andrea Richardson, Bing Han, Stephanie Williamson and Deborah Cohen

factor in attracting to parks users overall. Subsidized meals were associated with increased park use overall, and for sedentary and senior park users. Subsidized meals are a nutrition safety net that may attract vulnerable populations. Thus, parks may not only be places to enjoy nature, to exercise, and