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Javier Molina-García and Ana Queralt

environmental factor related to active transportation behavior. Most studies correlate neighborhood characteristics to physical activity in adults or adolescents, 5 – 7 and the built environment attributes usually analyzed are residential density, road intersection density, and land-use mix as walkability

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Gregory Knell, Henry S. Brown, Kelley P. Gabriel, Casey P. Durand, Kerem Shuval, Deborah Salvo and Harold W. Kohl III

decrease health care expenditures but rather to provide a safe and defined space for one to engage in walking or jogging for transportation or leisure. In addition, there are economic, social, and environmental benefits to making neighborhoods more walkable. 48 In light of the results of this study and

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Ernest Boakye-Dankwa, Anthony Barnett, Nancy A. Pachana, Gavin Turrell and Ester Cerin

accessibility were larger for destinations within a 5- to 10-min walk than for destinations that were within a 20-min walk from home, and older residents from the ultradense city accumulated 20 times more minutes of walking for transport than those living in the low-density city. This suggests that destinations

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Nathan H. Parker, Rebecca E. Lee, Daniel P. O’Connor, An Ngo-Huang, Maria Q.B. Petzel, Keri Schadler, Xuemei Wang, Lianchun Xiao, David Fogelman, Richard Simpson, Jason B. Fleming, Jeffrey E. Lee, Ching-Wei D. Tzeng, Sunil K. Sahai, Karen Basen-Engquist and Matthew H.G. Katz

Furthermore, neighborhood walkability and availability of recreational spaces have been associated with increased physical activity in cancer survivors. 30 , 31 The purpose of this study was to characterize relationships between socioecological factors and physical activity among patients enrolled in a home

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Dimitrios-Sokratis Komaris, Cheral Govind, Andrew Murphy, Alistair Ewen and Philip Riches

biomechanics of the sit-to-stand and sit-to-walk movement, in people with disabilities, has been previously reported. 18 – 21 The identification of movement strategies, or the study of their effects, has been achieved via questionnaires, video observation, and motion analysis. 22 – 26 Pushing through the

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Anson B. Rosenfeldt, Amanda L. Penko, Andrew S. Bazyk, Matthew C. Streicher, Tanujit Dey and Jay L. Alberts

are needed for modulating both the cognitive and motor task ( Wu et al., 2015 ). In a clinical setting, the Timed Up and Go test with the addition of a cognitive task is one of the most common metrics for assessing DT declines in PD. During the cognitive Timed Up and Go, the individual stands, walks 3

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Michelle Seanor, Robert J. Schinke, Natalia B. Stambulova, Kristoffer Henriksen, Dave Ross and Cole Giffin

Olympic champion. Data Collection The Guided Walks Three contextual experts, the Olympic coach, the assistant coach, and the Olympic champion, were engaged in this case study. Each contextual expert held a different role in Skyriders and provided insight about the sport environment from his or her unique

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Michelle C. Kegler, Iris Alcantara, Regine Haardörfer, Alexandra Gemma, Denise Ballard and Julie Gazmararian

Background:

Physical activity levels, including walking, are lower in the southern U.S., particularly in rural areas. This study investigated the concept of rural neighborhood walkability to aid in developing tools for assessing walkability and to identify intervention targets in rural communities.

Methods:

Semi-structured interviews were conducted with physically active adults (n = 29) in rural Georgia. Mean age of participants was 55.9 years; 66% were male, 76% were white, and 24% were African American. Participants drew maps of their neighborhoods and discussed the relevance of typical domains of walkability to their decisions to exercise. Comparative analyses were conducted to identify major themes.

Results:

The majority felt the concept of neighborhood was applicable and viewed their neighborhood as small geographically (less than 0.5 square miles). Sidewalks were not viewed as essential for neighborhood-based physical activity and typical destinations for walking were largely absent. Destinations within walking distance included neighbors’ homes and bodies of water. Views were mixed on whether shade, safety, dogs, and aesthetics affected decisions to exercise in their neighborhoods.

Conclusions:

Measures of neighborhood walkability in rural areas should acknowledge the small size of self-defined neighborhoods, that walking in rural areas is likely for leisure time exercise, and that some domains may not be relevant.

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Bill Reger-Nash, Adrian Bauman, Linda Cooper, Tien Chey, Kenneth J. Simon, Maria Brann and Kevin M. Leyden

Background:

WV Walks replicated the Wheeling Walks community-wide campaign methodology to promote physical activity.

Methods:

A social marketing intervention promoted walking among insufficiently active 40- to 65-year-olds throughout the television media market in north-central West Virginia. The intervention included participatory planning, an 8-week mass media-based campaign, and policy and environmental activities. Pre and post random-digit-dial cohort telephone surveys were conducted at baseline and immediately postcampaign in intervention and comparison regions.

Results:

The campaign resulted in maximal message awareness in north-central WV and demonstrated a significant increase in walking behavior represented by an absolute shift of 12% of the target population from insufficiently active to active (≥30 minutes, 5 days per week), versus the comparison community (adjusted odds ratio 1.82, CI: 1.05−3.17). Policy and environmental changes were also evident.

Conclusions:

This replication study increases our confidence that the initial effects observed in the Wheeling Walks intervention are generalizable to other similar rural communities.

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Kathleen B. Watson, Susan A. Carlson, Tiffany Humbert-Rico, Dianna D. Carroll and Janet E. Fulton

Background:

Less than one-third of U.S. adults walk for transportation. Public health strategies to increase transportation walking would benefit from knowing what adults think is a reasonable distance to walk. Our purpose was to determine 1) what adults think is a reasonable distance and amount of time to walk and 2) whether there were differences in minutes spent transportation walking by what adults think is reasonable.

Methods:

Analyses used a cross-sectional nationwide adult sample (n = 3653) participating in the 2010 Summer ConsumerStyles mail survey.

Results:

Most adults (> 90%) think transportation walking is reasonable. However, less than half (43%) think walking a mile or more or for 20 minutes or more is reasonable. What adults think is reasonable is similar across most demographic subgroups, except for older adults (≥ 65 years) who think shorter distances and times are reasonable. Trend analysis that adjust for demographic characteristics indicates adults who think longer distances and times are reasonable walk more.

Conclusions:

Walking for short distances is acceptable to most U.S. adults. Public health programs designed to encourage longer distance trips may wish to improve supports for transportation walking to make walking longer distances seem easier and more acceptable to most U.S. adults.