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Evie Leslie, Ester Cerin and Peter Kremer

Background:

Access to local parks can affect walking levels. Neighborhood environment and park use may influence relationships between neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and walking.

Methods:

Self-report data on perceived park features, neighborhood environment, park use, neighborhood walking and sociodemographics were obtained from a sample of Australian adults, living in high/low SES areas. Surveys were mailed to 250 randomly selected households within 500m of 12 matched parks. Mediating effects of perceived environment attributes and park use on relationships between area-SES and walking were examined.

Results:

Mean frequency of local park use was higher for high-SES residents (4.36 vs 3.16 times/wk, P < .01), who also reported higher levels of park safety, maintenance, attractiveness, opportunities for socialization, and neighborhood crime safety, aesthetics, and traffic safety. Safety and opportunity for socialization were independently positively related to monthly frequency of visits to a local park which, in turn, was positively associated with walking for recreation and total walking. Residents of higher SES areas reported an average 22% (95% CI: 5%, 37%) more weekly minutes of recreational walking than their low SES counterparts.

Conclusion:

Residents of high-SES areas live in environments that promote park use, which positively contributes to their weekly amounts of overall and recreational walking.

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Elaine Trudelle-Jackson, Emerenciana Hines, Ann Medley and Mary Thompson

declines earlier and faster than strength. 7 , 8 Studies have shown that measures of muscle strength and power are related to functional limitations and walking behavior in older adults. 7 , 9 Training for muscle power using high-velocity movements may be beneficial for adults following TKA but this type

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Jordana L. Maisel

Built environment features can have varying impacts on user behavior depending on the perceptions of the opportunities and obstacles that the environments create. This study systematically evaluated the relationship between neighborhood perceptions and the specific types of self-reported walking behavior for 121 older adults who resided in urban, suburban, or rural neighborhoods. Perceptions of street connectivity, crime and traffic safety, and overall satisfaction were associated with specific types of walking behaviors, and the strength of the relationships differed by neighborhood type. Sociodemographic variables such as age and sex were associated with certain types and amounts of older adults’ walking behaviors both across and within each neighborhood type. The results of this study support the importance of perceived street connectivity regardless of neighborhood type and perceived crime safety in rural neighborhoods to impact the walking behavior among older adults.

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Richard A. Dunn, W. Douglass Shaw and Michael A. Trousdale

In this article, the authors examine how temperature and precipitation affect the probability that a retired American between the ages of 65 and 90 walks at least 2.5 hr/wk, using longitudinal data on walking frequency from the Consumption and Activities Mail Survey, a subpanel in the Health and Retirement Survey. Walking behavior is linked with monthly temperature and precipitation data from weather-station reports. The authors found that higher temperatures were associated with a higher probability of walking at least 2.5 hr/wk for women. In contrast, higher temperatures are associated with a lower probability of walking at least 2.5 hr/wk among men. Precipitation is not significantly associated with walking behavior for either gender.

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Stijn A.H. Friederichs, Stef P.J. Kremers, Lilian Lechner and Nanne K. de Vries

Background:

In promoting physical activity, it is important to gain insight into environmental factors that facilitate or hinder physical activity and factors that may influence this environment–behavior relationship. As the personality factor of action orientation reflects an individual’s capacity to regulate behavior it may act as a moderator in the environment–behavior relationship. The current study addressed the relationship between neighborhood walkability and walking behavior and the influence of action orientation on this relationship.

Methods:

Three hundred and forty-seven Dutch inhabitants [mean age 43.1 (SD 17.1)] completed a web based questionnaire assessing demographic variables, neighborhood walkability (Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale), variables of the Theory of Planned Behavior, action orientation, and walking behavior.

Results:

The results show that high levels of neighborhood walkability are positively associated with walking behavior and that this influence is largely unmediated by cognitive processes. A positive influence of neighborhood walkability on walking behavior was identified in the action-oriented subpopulation, whereas in the state-oriented part of the population, this influence was absent.

Conclusions:

The findings suggest that the influence of neighborhood environment on walking behavior has a relatively large unconscious, automatic component. In addition, the results suggest that the walkability–walking relationship is moderated by action orientation.

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Catrine Tudor-Locke and Sandra A. Ham

Background:

We report walking for shopping, exercise, transportation, and walking the dog, among other sources captured in the 2003 to 2005 American Time Use Survey (ATUS).

Methods:

We extracted and analyzed 8 walking behaviors (by sex, age, education level, and race/ethnicity) from 24 hours of activities recalled by telephone interview for 15,175 males and 19,518 females age ≥15 years.

Results:

On any given day in 2003 to 2005, 45.8% of Americans participated in a median of 45 minutes of any walking activities; 31.6% walked for shopping purposes, 12.5% walked for transportation, 4.8% walked for exercise, and 2.5% walked the dog. College-educated respondents more commonly reported walking while shopping, walking for exercise, and dog walking. Those with less than a high school education more commonly reported walking for transportation.

Conclusions:

Despite limitations identified in imputing explicit and implicit performance of walking behaviors in the ATUS, Americans engage in a wide variety of walking behaviors that are not well represented by surveys focused only on leisure-time behaviors. Public health implications include increased availability of multiple and varied opportunities for walking, especially through environmental shifts toward more walkable places and destinations and policy shifts that support walking behaviors over competing transportation modes.

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Catrine Tudor-Locke and Stephanie Broyles

The focus of a physically active lifestyle for older adults is to preserve functional mobility and delay losses associated with decrepitude in later years. Since ambulation is of utmost importance to older adults’ mobility, the purpose of this nonexhaustive review is to consider older adults’ walking behaviors objectively captured as steps/day and the factors that shape them. Summarized evidence currently indicates that apparently healthy older adults accumulate between 2,000–9,000 steps/day and that older adults living with disabilities and/or chronic conditions average approximately 1,200–8,800 steps/day. The scientific body of objectively monitored knowledge focused on potential individual, program, and contextual factors that shape older adults’ walking behaviors expressed as steps/day (i.e., their ability to and practice of getting “out and about”) is infantile at this time. We provide a simple research agenda to spark scholarly efforts to address research gaps and opportunities in the collective knowledge base.

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James J. McClain, David Grant, Gordon Willis and David Berrigan

Background:

Question design can influence the validity and reliability of physical activity (PA) self-report instruments. This study assesses the effect of temporal domain (“days” walked versus “times” walked) on survey questions about walking behavior.

Methods:

A 2005 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) sub-sample (n = 6332) reported the number of days or times they walked for leisure or transportation in the past 7 days and the usual time spent per day or per time. Question order was randomized by temporal domain. Minutes walked per week (mean ± SE) and adherence to PA guidelines (≥150 min/wk) were assessed.

Results:

Estimates of leisure walking remained stable across temporal domain (days = 71.4 ± 2.5 min; times = 73.4 ± 2.4 min), but transportation walking differed depending on domain (days = 70.4 ± 3.2 min; times = 52.5 ± 2.6 min). Adherence to PA guidelines based on leisure walking was stable across temporal domain (days = 14.9 ± 0.6%; times = 14.9 ± 0.6%), but again differed by domain for transportation walking (days = 10.4 ± 0.6%; times = 7.8 ± 0.5%). A large order effect (number-of-days versus number-of-times asked first) was observed for reports of days walking for transportation (days first = 87.8 ± 2.9 min; times first = 52.3 ± 2.5 min).

Conclusion:

Temporal domain influences estimates of self-reported transportation walking behavior. Current efforts to capture PA from both transportation and leisure activities in health research appear to present distinct methodological challenges.

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Ernest Boakye-Dankwa, Anthony Barnett, Nancy A. Pachana, Gavin Turrell and Ester Cerin

walking ( Sugiyama, Inoue, Cerin, Shimomitsu, & Owen, 2015 ). Studies on destination accessibility and older adults’ walking behaviors have typically employed a variable-centered approach, seeking to estimate the associations between access to a group of or individual destination types within certain

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Marui Weber Corseuil Giehl, Pedro Curi Hallal, Claudia Weber Corseuil, Ione J. Ceola Schneider and Eleonora d’Orsi

Background:

Understanding the built environment influence on specific domains of walking is important for public health interventions to increase physical activity levels among older adults.

Purpose:

The purpose was to investigate the association between built environment characteristics and walking among older adults.

Methods:

A population-based study was performed in 80 census tracts in Florianópolis, Brazil, including 1,705 older adults (60+ years old). Walking was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Built environment characteristics were assessed through a geographic information system. All analyses were conducted through a multilevel logistic regression.

Results:

Individuals living in neighborhoods with a higher population density (odds ratio [OR]: 2.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.40–3.42), with a higher street connectivity (OR: 1.85; 95% CI, 1.16–2.94), a higher sidewalk proportion (OR: 1.77; 95% CI, 1.11–2.83), and paved streets (medium tertile: OR: 1.61, 95% CI, 1.04–2.49; highest tertile: OR: 2.11; 95% CI, 1.36–3.27) were more likely to walk for transportation. Regarding walking for leisure, only 2 predictors were associated, area income (OR: 1.48; 95% CI, 1.04–2.12) and street density (OR: 1.47; 95% CI, 1.02–2.10).

Conclusions:

Improving the neighborhood built environment is an important step for achieving higher levels of walking in the elderly population in a middle-income country.