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Britton W. Brewer, Adisa Haznadar, Dylan Katz, Judy L. Van Raalte, and Albert J. Petitpas

effect ( McGowan, Pyne, Thompson, & Rattray, 2015 ). Physical warm-up activities can literally warm the muscles of athletes and prime the body systems involved in sport tasks that follow. Some physical warm-ups can also serve as a “microdose” of strength-and-conditioning exercise that can reduce the risk

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David Barranco-Gil, Lidia B. Alejo, Pedro L. Valenzuela, Jaime Gil-Cabrera, Almudena Montalvo-Pérez, Eduardo Talavera, Susana Moral-González, Vicente J. Clemente-Suárez, and Alejandro Lucia

Warming up is widely considered an effective performance-enhancing strategy, with several potential mechanisms being proposed, such as increases in muscle temperature, metabolic rate (through an accelerated oxygen supply to muscles), or nerve conduction rate, as well as psychological benefits. 1

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Lee Taylor, Christopher J. Stevens, Heidi R. Thornton, Nick Poulos, and Bryna C.R. Chrismas

, 4 – 7 large increases in T c during WRSS match play (eg,  T c  > 39°C) may limit physical performance. 1 A WRSS tournament day is typically characterized by 3 matches in close proximity (∼3 h between matches) and ∼20 to 30 minutes allocated for a team to warm-up prior to each match. 1 The warm-up

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Rebecca L. Jones, Trent Stellingwerff, Paul Swinton, Guilherme Giannini Artioli, Bryan Saunders, and Craig Sale

support for performance efficacy ( Maughan et al., 2018 ). Warming up prior to a specific exercise bout is a commonly employed practice and is considered essential by coaches and athletes to achieve optimal performance. The aim of a warm-up is to elicit various physiological effects, such as increased

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William H. Gurton, Steve H. Faulkner, and Ruth M. James

perturbation experienced during warm-up strategies preceding competition. Kilding et al 14 suggested that an intermittent cycling warm-up (20 min at 60%–65% maximal aerobic power; 5 × 20-s sprints) decreased HCO 3 − by ∼5 mmol·L −1 from baseline in the placebo trial with only a small increase (+3.7 mmol

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David Barranco-Gil, Jaime Gil-Cabrera, Pedro L. Valenzuela, Lidia B. Alejo, Almudena Montalvo-Pérez, Eduardo Talavera, Susana Moral-González, and Alejandro Lucia

standardized warm-up (see “Methods” section). Previous studies using the previously mentioned warm-up protocol have assessed the relationship between FTP and other markers of the steady to nonsteady state transition, such as the lactate 4 or individual anaerobic threshold, 5 or the MLSS, 6 showing at best

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Mathias T. Vangsoe, Jonas K. Nielsen, and Carl D. Paton

Cycling coaches and athletes are constantly searching for intervention strategies to improve race performance. It is widely acknowledged that an appropriately implemented warm-up strategy can substantially benefit cycling performance by increasing muscle temperature, speeding up oxygen uptake

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Wing-Chun V. Yeung, Chris Bishop, Anthony N. Turner, and Sean J. Maloney

A dynamic warm-up has been widely demonstrated to elicit acute improvements in speed/power performance. 1 However, the addition of specific “preconditioning” activities to a warm-up may further augment improvements in performance. Previously reported as the postactivation potentiation phenomenon

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Olfa Turki, Wissem Dhahbi, Johnny Padulo, Riadh Khalifa, Sana Ridène, Khaled Alamri, Mirjana Milić, Sabri Gueid, and Karim Chamari

The athletic warm-up consists of a set of low- to moderate-intensity exercises designed to increase muscle temperature, cellular metabolism, and range of motion 1 to help players reach their optimum performance during sporting activities 2 and to mitigate the risk of injury. 3 Although past

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Ben C. Sporer, Anita Cote, and Gordon Sleivert


The purpose of this project was to observe current warm-up practices in snowboard athletes and evaluate their physiological impact before competition.


An observational design was used to monitor 4 athletes (2 female) at an Open National Snowboard Cross Championships. Activity patterns, core temperature, heart rate (HR), and time between warm-up and competition were measured. Athlete ratings of thermal comfort (TC) and thermal sensation (TS) were recorded before competition.


Significant barriers and challenges to an optimal warm-up included delays, environment, and logistics. Time gaps between structured warm-up and competition start time were in excess of 1 h (median = 68.8 min). Median average HR for 10 min (HR10) did not exceed 120 beats/min in the hour preceding competition, suggesting a suboptimal warmup intensity. Athletes rated their TC between comfortable and slightly uncomfortable and TS as neutral to slightly warm before the start of qualifications and finals.


The observations of this project suggest significant gaps in current warm-up strategies used in snowboarding. These include inadequate general aerobic warm-up (based on intensity and duration), excessive time between warm-up and competition, and lack of a consistent and structured warm-up protocol. Future work is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of different warm-up strategies on muscle temperature and performance while determining the optimal length of time between warm-up and competition.