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Koichi Kaneda, Daisuke Sato, Hitoshi Wakabayashi, Atsuko Hanai and Takeo Nomura

This study compared the effects of 2 types of water exercise programs on balance ability in the elderly. Thirty healthy elderly persons (60.7 ± 4.1 yr) were randomly assigned to a deep-water-running exercise (DWRE, n = 15) group or a normal water exercise (NWE, n = 15) group. The participants completed a twice-weekly water exercise intervention for 12 wk. Exercise sessions comprised a 10-min warm-up on land, 20 min of water-walking exercise, 30 min of water exercise while separated into NWE and DWRE, a 10-min rest on land, and 10 min of recreation and relaxation in water. Postural-sway distance and tandem-walking time were decreased significantly in DWRE. Postural-sway area was decreased significantly in NWE. In both groups, simple reaction times were significantly decreased. The findings of this study show that a water exercise program including deep-water running is much better than normal water exercise for improving dynamic balance ability in the elderly.

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Helen M. Binkley and Lauren E. Rudd

, water exercise, hydrotherapy, water aerobics, women, PM, and elderly women. In addition to database searches, the references from acceptable studies, applicable systematic reviews, AE/therapies websites, secondary sources, and conference papers were searched for additional information. The search was

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W. Matthew Silvers, Eadric Bressel, D. Clark Dickin, Garry Killgore and Dennis G. Dolny


Muscle activation during aquatic treadmill (ATM) running has not been examined, despite similar investigations for other modes of aquatic locomotion and increased interest in ATM running.


The objectives of this study were to compare normalized (percentage of maximal voluntary contraction; %MVC), absolute duration (aDUR), and total (tACT) lower-extremity muscle activity during land treadmill (TM) and ATM running at the same speeds.


Exploratory, quasi-experimental, crossover design.


Athletic training facility.


12 healthy recreational runners (age = 25.8 ± 5 y, height = 178.4 ± 8.2 cm, mass = 71.5 ± 11.5 kg, running experience = 8.2 ± 5.3 y) volunteered for participation.


All participants performed TM and ATM running at 174.4, 201.2, and 228.0 m/min while surface electromyographic data were collected from the vastus medialis, rectus femoris, gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, and biceps femoris.

Main Outcome Measures:

For each muscle, a 2 × 3 repeated-measures ANOVA was used to analyze the main effects and environment–speed interaction (P ≤ .05) of each dependent variable: %MVC, aDUR, and tACT.


Compared with TM, ATM elicited significantly reduced %MVC (−44.0%) but increased aDUR (+213.1%) and tACT (+41.9%) in the vastus medialis, increased %MVC (+48.7%) and aDUR (+128.1%) in the rectus femoris during swing phase, reduced %MVC (−26.9%) and tACT (−40.1%) in the gastrocnemius, increased aDUR (+33.1%) and tACT (+35.7%) in the tibialis anterior, and increased aDUR (+41.3%) and tACT (+29.2%) in the biceps femoris. At faster running speeds, there were significant increases in tibialis anterior %MVC (+8.6−15.2%) and tACT (+12.7−17.0%) and rectus femoris %MVC (12.1−26.6%; swing phase).


No significant environment–speed interaction effects suggested that observed muscle-activity differences between ATM and TM were due to environmental variation, ie, buoyancy (presumed to decrease %MVC) and drag forces (presumed to increase aDUR and tACT) in the water.

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Cruz Hogan, Martyn J. Binnie, Matthew Doyle, Leanne Lester and Peter Peeling

Purpose: To compare methods of monitoring and prescribing on-water exercise intensity (heart rate [HR], stroke rate [SR], and power output [PO]) during sprint kayak training. Methods: Twelve well-trained flat-water sprint kayak athletes completed a preliminary on-water 7 × 4-min graded exercise test and a 1000-m time trial to delineate individual training zones for PO, HR, and SR into a 5-zone model (T1–T5). Subsequently, athletes completed 2 repeated trials of an on-water training session, where intensity was prescribed based on individual PO zones. Times quantified for T1–T5 during the training session were then compared between PO, HR, and SR. Results: Total time spent in T1 was higher for HR (P < .01) compared with PO. Time spent in T2 was lower for HR (P < .001) and SR (P < .001) compared with PO. Time spent in T3 was not different between PO, SR, and HR (P > .05). Time spent in T4 was higher for HR (P < .001) and SR (P < .001) compared with PO. Time spent in T5 was higher for SR (P = .03) compared with PO. Differences were found between the prescribed and actual time spent in T1–T5 when using PO (P < .001). Conclusions: The measures of HR and SR misrepresented time quantified for T1–T5 as prescribed by PO. The stochastic nature of PO during on-water training may explain the discrepancies between prescribed and actual time quantified for power across these zones. For optimized prescription and monitoring of athlete training loads, coaches should consider the discrepancies between different measures of intensity and how they may influence intensity distribution.

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Rochelle R. Costa, Adriana C.K. Buttelli, Leandro Coconcelli, Laura F. Pereira, Alexandra F. Vieira, Alex de O. Fagundes, Juliano B. Farinha, Thais Reichert, Ricardo Stein and Luiz F.M. Kruel

Exerc . 2002 ; 34 ( 3 ): 544 – 551 . PubMed ID: 11880822 10.1097/00005768-200203000-00024 11880822 12. Volaklis KA , Spassis AT , Tokmakidis SP . Land versus water exercise in patients with coronary artery disease: effects on body composition, blood lipids, and physical fitness . Am Heart J

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Chung-Chao Liang, Qi-Xing Change, Yu-Chou Hung, Chizan-Chung Chen, Chun-Hsiang Lin, Yu-Chun Wei and Jia-Ching Chen

. , & Nomura , T. ( 2009 ). Comparison of 2-year effects of once and twice weekly water exercise on activities of daily living ability of community dwelling frail elderly . Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 49 ( 1 ), 123 – 128 . PubMed doi:10.1016/j.archger.2008.05.011 10.1016/j.archger.2008

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Deborah A.M. Jehu, Nicole Paquet and Yves Lajoie

.1589/jpts.26.1219 10.1589/jpts.26.1219 Lim , H.S. , & Yoon , S. ( 2014 b). The training and detraining effects of 8 weeks of water exercise on obstacle avoidance in gait by the elderly . Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 26 , 1215 – 1218 . doi:10.1589/jpts.26.1215 10.1589/jpts.26.1215 Makizako

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Rochelle Rocha Costa, Adriana Cristine Koch Buttelli, Alexandra Ferreira Vieira, Leandro Coconcelli, Rafael de Lima Magalhães, Rodrigo Sudatti Delevatti and Luiz Fernando Martins Kruel

, Tokmakidis SP . Land versus water exercise in patients with coronary artery disease: effects on body composition, blood lipids, and physical fitness . Am Heart J . 2007 ; 154 ( 3 ): 560.e1 – 560.e6 . doi:10.1016/j.ahj.2007.06.029 10.1016/j.ahj.2007.06.029 7. Ayaz A , Roshan VD . Effects of 6-weeks

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Christine E. Roberts, Louise H. Phillips, Clare L. Cooper, Stuart Gray and Julia L. Allan

care setting: a randomized controlled trial . Contemporary Nurse, 48 ( 1 ), 76 – 87 . PubMed doi:10.1080/10376178.2014.11081929 * Sato , D. , Kaneda , K. , Wakabayashi , H. , & Nomura , T. ( 2007 ). The water exercise improves health-related quality of life of frail elderly people at day

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Layne Case and Joonkoo Yun

), and water exercise training ( Yanardag, Akmanoglu, & Yilmaz, 2013 ). The wide variety of intervention types suggests that many different intervention strategies, with varying effectiveness, have been used to target the gross motor performance outcomes of children with ASD. Multiple interventions have