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Jeff A. Nessler, Thomas Hastings, Kevin Greer and Sean C. Newcomer

Low back pain is a commonly reported problem among recreational surfers. Some individuals report that wearing a vest with an inflatable bladder that alters trunk angle may help to alleviate pain. The purpose of this study was to determine whether such a vest has an effect on muscle activation and extension of the lower back. Twelve recreational surfers completed 12 paddling trials at 1.1 m/s in a swim flume on both a shortboard and a longboard on 2 separate days. Three conditions of no vest, vest uninflated, and vest inflated were presented to participants in random order. Surface EMG and trunk angle were acquired via wireless sensors placed over the right erector spinae, mid-trapezius, upper trapezius, and latissimus dorsi. Wearing the inflated vest affected muscle activation: erector spinae and mid-trapezius demonstrated a significant decrease in activation relative to wearing no vest (12% and 18% respectively, p < .05). Trunk extension was also significantly reduced when the vest was inflated (18% reduction, p < .05). Results were similar for both the short and longboard, though this effect was greater while paddling the larger board. These results suggest that a properly inflated vest can alter trunk extension and muscle activity while paddling a surfboard in water.

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Tiago Turnes, Rogério S.O. Cruz, Fabrizio Caputo and Rafael A. De Aguiar

Purpose: The 2000-m rowing-ergometer test is the most common measure of rowing performance. Because athletes use different intervention strategies for enhancing performance, investigating the effect of preconditioning strategies on the 2000-m test is of great relevance. This study evaluated the effects of different preconditioning strategies on 2000-m rowing-ergometer performance in trained rowers. Methods: A search of electronic databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Science) identified 27 effects of different preconditioning strategies from 17 studies. Outcomes were calculated as percentage differences between control and experimental interventions, and data were presented as mean ± 90% confidence interval. Performance data were converted to the same metrics, that is, mean power. Meta-regression analyses were conducted to assess whether performance level or caffeine dose could affect the percentage change. Results: The overall beneficial effect on 2000-m mean power was 2.1% (90% confidence limit [CL] ±0.6%). Training status affected the percentage change with interventions, with a −1.1% (90% CL ±1.2%) possible small decrease for 1.0-W·kg−1 increment in performance baseline. Caffeine consumption most likely improves performance, with superior effect in higher doses (≥6 mg·kg−1). Sodium bicarbonate and beta-alanine consumption resulted in likely (2.6% [90% CL ±1.5%]) and very likely (1.4% [90% CL ±1.2%]) performance improvements, respectively. However, some preconditioning strategies such as heat acclimation, rehydration, and creatine resulted in small to moderate enhancements in 2000-m performance. Conclusions: Supplementation of caffeine and beta-alanine is a popular and effective strategy to improve 2000-m ergometer performance in trained rowers. Additional research is warranted to confirm the benefit of other strategies to 2000-m rowing-ergometer performance.

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Kevin R. Heinsimer, Nicolas G. Nelson, Kristin J. Roberts and Lara B. McKenzie

Background:

The objective was to describe the patterns and mechanisms of water tubing–related injuries treated in U.S. emergency departments.

Methods:

The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System was used to examine cases of water tubing–related injuries. Sample weights were used to calculate national estimates of water tubing–related injuries. Analyses were conducted in 2010.

Results:

From 1991−2009 an estimated 69,471 injuries were treated in US emergency departments for water tubing–related injuries. The annual number of cases increased 250% over the 19-year study period (P < .001). Sprains and strains accounted for the largest portion of injuries (27.2%). The head was the most frequently injured body part (27.5%). Children and adolescents ≤ 19 years were more likely to be injured by contact with another person (OR: 2.47; 95% CI = 1.61−3.80) and were more likely to sustain injuries to the head (OR: 2.61; 95% CI = 2.01−3.38) compared with adults. Adults ≥ 20 years, were more likely than individuals ≤ 19 years to sustain sprains and strains (OR: 2.11; 95% CI = 1.64−2.71) and were most commonly injured by impact with the water (54.6%).

Conclusions:

Patterns of water tubing–related injuries differ for children and adults. Research is needed to determine how best to reduce these injuries.

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Tiago Turnes, Rafael Penteado dos Santos, Rafael Alves de Aguiar, Thiago Loch, Leonardo Trevisol Possamai and Fabrizio Caputo

Purpose: To compare the intensity and physiological responses of deoxygenated hemoglobin breaking point ([HHb]BP) and anaerobic threshold (AnT) during an incremental test and to verify their association with 2000-m rowing-ergometer performance in well-trained rowers. Methods: A total of 13 male rowers (mean [SD] age = 24 [11] y and V˙O2peak = 63.7 [6.1] mL·kg−1·min−1) performed a step incremental test. Gas exchange, vastus lateralis [HHb], and blood lactate concentration were measured. Power output, V˙O2, and heart rate of [HHb]BP and AnT were determined and compared with each other. A 2000-m test was performed in another visit. Results: No differences were found between [HHb]BP and AnT in the power output (236 [31] vs 234 [31] W; Δ = 0.7%), 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.7%), V˙O2 (4.2 [0.5] vs 4.3 [0.4] L·min−1; Δ = −0.8%, 95% CI 4.0%), or heart rate (180 [16] vs 182 [12] beats·min−1; Δ = −1.6%, 95% CI 2.1%); however, there was high typical error of estimate (TEE) and wide 95% limits of agreement (LoA) for power output (TEE 10.7%, LoA 54.1–50.6 W), V˙O2 (TEE 5.9%, LoA −0.57 to 0.63 L·min−1), and heart rate (TEE 2.4%, LoA −9.6 to 14.7 beats·min−1). Significant correlations were observed between [HHb]BP (r = .70) and AnT (r = .89) with 2000-m mean power. Conclusions: These results demonstrate a breaking point in [HHb] of the vastus lateralis muscle during the incremental test that is capable of distinguishing rowers with different performance levels. However, the high random error would compromise the use of [HHb]BP for training and testing in rowing.

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Ben Desbrow, Katelyn Barnes, Caroline Young, Greg R. Cox and Chris Irwin

Immediate postexercise access to fruit/fluid via a recovery “station” is a common feature of mass participation sporting events. Yet little evidence exists examining their impact on subsequent dietary intake. The aim of this study was to determine if access to fruit/water/sports drinks within a recovery station significantly alters dietary and fluid intakes in the immediate postexercise period and influences hydration status the next morning. 127 (79 males) healthy participants (M ± SD, age = 22.5 ± 3.5y, body mass (BM) = 73 ± 13kg) completed two self-paced morning 10km runs separated by 1 week. Immediately following the first run, participants were randomly assigned to enter (or not) the recovery station for 30min. All participants completed the alternate recovery option the following week. Participants recorded BM before and after exercise and measured Urine Specific Gravity (USG) before running and again the following morning. For both trial days, participants also completed 24h food and fluid records via a food diary that included photographs. Paired-sample t tests were used to assess differences in hydration and dietary outcome variables (Recovery vs. No Recovery). No difference in preexercise USG or BM change from exercise were observed between treatments (p’s > .05). Attending the recovery zone resulted in a greater total daily fluid (Recovery = 3.37 ± 1.46L, No Recovery = 3.16 ± 1.32L, p = .009) and fruit intake (Recovery = 2.37 ± 1.76 servings, No Recovery = 1.55 ± 1.61 servings, p > .001), but had no influence on daily total energy (Recovery = 10.15 ± 4.2MJ, No Recovery = 10.15 ± 3.9MJ), or macronutrient intakes (p > .05). Next morning USG values were not different between treatments (Recovery = 1.018 ± 0.007, No Recovery = 1.019 ± 0.009, p > .05). Recovery stations provide an opportunity to modify dietary intake which promote positive lifestyle behaviors in recreational athletes.

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Ben Desbrow, Katelyn Barnes, Gregory R. Cox, Elizaveta Iudakhina, Danielle McCartney, Sierra Skepper, Caroline Young and Chris Irwin

/hunger ratings, or drink volume consumed ( p s > .05). Table 1 Comparison of Consuming Either Water Versus Sports Drink ( n  = 78) or LA-Beer Versus Sports Drink ( n  = 54) Following Recreational Running Water vs. sports drink LA-Beer vs. sports drink Water Sports drink p value LA-Beer Sports drink p value Pre

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Giannis Arnaoutis, Panagiotis Verginadis, Adam D. Seal, Ioannis Vogiatzis, Labros S. Sidossis and Stavros A. Kavouras

consisted of water, sports drinks, energy bars, fruit, yogurt, and sandwiches. No food or fluids were ingested during competition. Athletes consumed another snack immediately after postrace body weight. Around 7:00 PM athletes consumed dinner mainly composed of a salad and a main plate that included rice

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Sheri J. Brock, Jared A. Russell, Brenna Cosgrove and Jessica Richards

disciplines. Traditional course offerings include individual/team sports, wellness, stress reduction, aquatics, martial arts, fitness, and water sports. As a secondary goal, the PAWP affords our GTAs the opportunity to acquire and develop relevant skills, conceptual knowledge, and experiences that will

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Kimberly A. Clevenger, Karin A. Pfeiffer and Cheryl A. Howe

from Ohio University . References 1. Ainslie PN , Reilly T , Westerterp KR . Estimating human energy expenditure: a review of techniques with particular reference to doubly labelled water . Sports Med . 2003 ; 33 ( 9 ): 683 – 98 . PubMed ID: 12846591 doi:10

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MinKyoung Song, Robert F. Corwyn, Robert H. Bradley and Julie C. Lumeng

person wearing the accelerometer. 11 Children wore the accelerometer on a belt around their waist during waking hours for 7 consecutive days (5 weekdays and 2 weekend days), excluding showering/bathing, water sports, contact sports, or high-impact sports. Participation rate in wearing the monitor was