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Reid Reale, Gary Slater, Gregory R. Cox, Ian C. Dunican, and Louise M. Burke

). “Water loading” is a recent addition to these methods, purportedly decreasing BM via increased urine production ( Reale et al., 2016 ). This technique involves consuming large fluid volumes (i.e., 7–10+ L/day) for several days followed by fluid restriction, allegedly manipulating renal hormones and urine

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Chris Easton, Stephen Turner, and Yannis P. Pitsiladis

The authors examined the effects of combined creatine (Cr) and glycerol (Gly) supplementation on responses to exercise in the heat. Subjects (N = 24) were matched for body mass and assigned to either a Cr or placebo (Pl) group. Twice daily during two 7-d supplementation regimens, the Cr group received 11.4 g of Cr·H2O and the Pl group received 11.4 g of glucose. Subjects in both groups also ingested 1 g of Gly/kg body mass (twice daily) in either the first or the second supplementation regimen. This design allowed 4 possible combinations of supplements to be examined (Pl/Pl, Pl/Gly, Cr/Pl, and Cr/Gly). Exercise trials were conducted pre- and post supplementation at 30 °C and 70% relative humidity. In the Pl group, total body water (TBW) increased by 0.50 ± 0.28 L after Gly and in the Cr group by 0.63 ± 0.33 L after Pl and by 0.87 ± 0.21 L after Gly. Both Cr/Pl and Cr/Gly resulted in significantly attenuated heart rate, rectal temperature, and perceived effort during exercise, although no regimen had any effect on performance. The addition of Gly to Cr significantly increased TBW more than Cr alone (P = 0.02) but did not further enhance the attenuation in HR, Tre, and RPE during exercise. These data suggest that combined Cr and Gly is an effective method of hyper hydration capable of reducing thermal and cardiovascular responses.

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Joseph John Matthews and Ceri Nicholas

There is a lack of research documenting the weight-making practices of mixed-martial-arts (MMA) competitors. The purpose of the investigation was to quantify the magnitude and identify the methods of rapid weight loss (RWL) and rapid weight gain (RWG) in MMA athletes preparing for competition. Seven athletes (mean ± SD, age 24.6 ± 3.5 yrs, body mass 69.9 ± 5.7 kg, competitive experience 3.1 ± 2.2 yrs) participated in a repeated-measures design. Measures of dietary intake, urinary hydration status, and body mass were recorded in the week preceding competition. Body mass decreased significantly (p < .0005) from baseline by 5.6 ± 1.4 kg (8 ± 1.8%). During the RWG period (32 ± 1 hr) body mass increased significantly (p < .001) by 7.4 ± 2.8 kg (11.7 ± 4.7%), exceeding RWL. Mean energy and carbohydrate intake were 3176 ± 482 kcal・day-1 and 471 ± 124 g・day-1, respectively. At the official weigh-in 57% of athletes were dehydrated (1033 ± 19 mOsmol・kg-1) and the remaining 43% were severely dehydrated (1267 ± 47 mOsmol・kg-1). Athletes reported using harmful dehydration-based RWL strategies, including sauna (43%) and training in plastic suits (43%). Results demonstrated RWG greater than RWL, this is a novel finding and may be attributable to the 32 hr duration from weigh-in till competition. The observed magnitude of RWL and strategies used are comparable to those which have previously resulted in fatalities. Rule changes which make RWL impractical should be implemented with immediate effect to ensure the health, safety and wellbeing of competitors.

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Mathew Hillier, Louise Sutton, Lewis James, Dara Mojtahedi, Nicola Keay, and Karen Hind

. Approximately half of athletes (50.6%) reported “ always ” using water loading. The least common method was self-induced vomiting, with 94.6% of athletes claiming to never use this method. Table 3 Methods of Weight Loss in Mixed Martial Arts (% of Group; N  = 314) Response (%) Chi-square Always Sometimes

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Oliver R. Barley, Dale W. Chapman, and Chris R. Abbiss

, evidence suggests that a method of weight loss called “water loading”—in which athletes consume large volumes of fluid for several days before beginning severe fluid restriction, with the aim of inducing hormonal responses to aid in weight loss—is prevalent in combat sports. 6 , 9 However, the prevalence

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Andreas M. Kasper, Ben Crighton, Carl Langan-Evans, Philip Riley, Asheesh Sharma, Graeme L. Close, and James P. Morton

week of assessment. Phase 2: Water Loading (−1 Week to −1 Day) Energy intake was decreased to approximately 1,000 kcal/day, but protein intake was increased (0.5 g/kg CHO, 1.3 g/kg protein, 0.5 g/kg fat; as reported by the meal preparation company). The athlete also engaged in water loading where 8 L

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Reid Reale, Gary Slater, and Louise M. Burke

availability, and reductions in gut contents. 2 Recent reports, however, suggest athletes use novel and untested methods to reduce BM in addition to traditional means, including “water loading” (consuming large fluid volumes for several days before a fluid restriction to create an “overshoot” in hormonal

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Nura Alwan, Samantha L. Moss, Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale, Ian G. Davies, and Kevin Enright

loading, followed by water restriction is allegedly used to modify renal hormones and encourage urination beyond the period of increased fluid intake, resulting in reduced body water ( Helms et al., 2014 ; Mitchell et al., 2017 ). The physiological effects of water loading have only been investigated in

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Kadhiresan R. Murugappan, Ariel Mueller, Daniel P. Walsh, Shahzad Shaefi, Akiva Leibowitz, and Todd Sarge

engage in water loading ( Reale et al., 2018 ) as well as thermal stress techniques than their counterparts ( Barley et al., 2019 ). Following a “weight cut,” athletes subsequently engage in rapid weight gain (RWG) through refeeding and rehydration to realize a potential size and/or strength advantage

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Jenny H. Conviser, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney, and Riley Nickols

, sufficient hormonal functioning and maintaining a positive energy balance. When weighing, RDs should be aware of the potential for athletes to artificially add weight via water loading, weighted undergarments, weighted hair ties, and/or other means. Height must be reliably measured, and self-reported health