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Christian A. Clermont, Lauren C. Benson, W. Brent Edwards, Blayne A. Hettinga and Reed Ferber

patterns during prolonged running. 10 Therefore, the first purpose of this study was to quantify subject-specific alterations in running patterns, using wearable technology data, throughout a marathon race. The second purpose of this study was to determine if runners could be clustered into separate

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Catrine Tudor-Locke and Elroy J. Aguiar

in physical activity research, and step-based physical activity goals are increasingly popularized, for example, 10,000 steps/day ( Bassett, Toth, LaMunion, & Crouter, 2017 ). The growth and adoption of wearable technologies (including research-grade accelerometers, consumer-grade wearable devices

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James W. Navalta, Jeffrey Montes, Nathaniel G. Bodell, Charli D. Aguilar, Ana Lujan, Gabriela Guzman, Brandi K. Kam, Jacob W. Manning and Mark DeBeliso

, Sattar, & Lean, 2017 ). In order for individuals to truly attain their step goals, the ability to accurately determine step count becomes important. Wearable technology was rated as the top fitness trend the past two years ( Thompson, 2015 , 2016 ), and this tendency is expected to grow as the use of

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Shona L Halson, Jonathan M. Peake and John P. Sullivan

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Marco Cardinale and Matthew C. Varley

The need to quantify aspects of training to improve training prescription has been the holy grail of sport scientists and coaches for many years. Recently, there has been an increase in scientific interest, possibly due to technological advancements and better equipment to quantify training activities. Over the last few years there has been an increase in the number of studies assessing training load in various athletic cohorts with a bias toward subjective reports and/or quantifications of external load. There is an evident lack of extensive longitudinal studies employing objective internal-load measurements, possibly due to the cost-effectiveness and invasiveness of measures necessary to quantify objective internal loads. Advances in technology might help in developing better wearable tools able to ease the difficulties and costs associated with conducting longitudinal observational studies in athletic cohorts and possibly provide better information on the biological implications of specific external-load patterns. Considering the recent technological developments for monitoring training load and the extensive use of various tools for research and applied work, the aim of this work was to review applications, challenges, and opportunities of various wearable technologies.

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Charlotte L. Edwardson, Melanie Davies, Kamlesh Khunti, Thomas Yates and Alex V. Rowlands

Global sales of wearable technology are increasing substantially year on year, with 32 million units sold in 2014, 72 million in 2015, and over 100 million in 2016 (Statista Website [Internet], 2017a ). Health and fitness trackers make up more than one-third of this wearable technology market

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Emma E. Sypes, Genevieve Newton and Zakkoyya H. Lewis

and enhanced, and in doing so, these devices contribute to the billion-dollar market of wearable technologies. 5 Given the substantial evidence concluding that EAMSs are valid tools for measuring activity levels, 6 , 7 the next step is to determine how they may influence user’s PA levels and promote

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Joseph M. Stock, Ryan T. Pohlig, Matthew J. Botieri, David G. Edwards and Gregory M. Dominick

to modify existing algorithms and make changes to the measurement properties and features to any Fitbit device without warning. Thus, the rapid pace in which wearable technology is advancing, combined with a persistent lack of measurement transparency continues to hinder the ability to disseminate

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Kayla J. Nuss, Joseph L. Sanford, Lucas J. Archambault, Ethan J. Schlemer, Sophie Blake, Jimikaye Beck Courtney, Nicholas A. Hulett and Kaigang Li

.A. , Navalta , J.W. , Fountaine , C.J. , & Reece , J.D. ( 2018 ). Current State of Commercial Wearable Technology in Physical Activity Monitoring 2015–2017 . Retrieved from https://digitalcommons.wku.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2315&context=ijes 29541338 Burke , L.E. , Wang , J. , & Sevick , M

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Gregory Knell, Deborah Salvo, Kerem Shuval, Casey Durand, Harold W. Kohl III and Kelley P. Gabriel

Recent technological advances allow for field-based data collection of accelerometers in community-based studies. Mail-based administration can markedly reduce the cost and logistic challenges and burden associated with in-person data collection. It necessitates, however, other resources, such as phone calls and mailed reminder prompts, to increase protocol compliance and data recovery. Additionally, lost accelerometers can impact the study’s budget and its internal validity due to missing data. In this article, we present an applied methodological approach used to define thresholds (or cutoff points) at which pursuing unreturned accelerometers is a worthwhile versus futile pursuit. This methodological approach was designed, specifically, to maximize scalability across multiple sectors. We used data from an on-going study that administered accelerometers through the mail to illustrate and encourage investigators to replicate the approach for use in their own studies. In heterogeneous study samples, investigators might consider repeating this approach by study-relevant strata to refine thresholds and improve the return percentages of data collection instruments, minimize the potential missing data, and optimize study staff time and resources.