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Kathleen S. Wilson and Kevin S. Spink

, in general ( 4 ), and physical activity, in particular ( 2 ). In addition to examining the directionality of the relationship, this study also had a second purpose, which was to examine whether weather influences the relationship between SRE and physical activity. A strong association exists between

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Stephen Hunter, Andrei Rosu, Kylie D. Hesketh, Ryan E. Rhodes, Christina M. Rinaldi, Wendy Rodgers, John C. Spence, and Valerie Carson

). However, few studies have examined broader environmental correlates, such as neighborhood features and weather, on toddlers’ physical activity and sedentary behavior ( 4 , 18 ). Of the work that has been done, neighborhood greenness ( 22 ), aspects of walkability, safety, aesthetics ( 12 , 23 , 34

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Anna Elizabeth Price, Julian A. Reed, Savannah Long, Andrea L. Maslow, and Steven P. Hooker

Background:

Public health efforts to promote trail use among older adults could be an effective strategy for increasing physical activity among older adults. However, research is needed to better understand factors that influence older adults’ use of trails.

Purpose:

To examine the association between variations in natural elements (ie, season, weather, temperature) and older adults’ overall trail use and physical activity intensity during trail use.

Methods:

A rail-trail in South Carolina was systematically evaluated (2006–2009) using The System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities.

Results:

The majority (74.2%) of the 1053 older trail users observed were walking; 25.9% were observed in vigorous activity. Older adults were most often observed using the trail in the spring (40.1%), sunny weather (76.8%), and moderate temperatures (56.2%). Significant differences in activity type by natural element variables were identified.

Conclusions:

When promoting trail use among older adults, natural elements should be considered.

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Victor E. Ezeugwu, Piush J. Mandhane, Nevin Hammam, Jeffrey R. Brook, Sukhpreet K. Tamana, Stephen Hunter, Joyce Chikuma, Diana L. Lefebvre, Meghan B. Azad, Theo J. Moraes, Padmaja Subbarao, Allan B. Becker, Stuart E. Turvey, Andrei Rosu, Malcolm R. Sears, and Valerie Carson

the pediatric population. 9 Previous research has identified features in the neighborhood environment, such as painted pedestrian (zebra) crossings, pedestrian lights, sidewalks, or closeness to shops that are important for PA in children and youth. 10 , 11 In addition, weather can influence the

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Wanzhu Tu, Timothy E. Stump, Teresa M. Damush, and Daniel O. Clark

This research investigated the effects of health and environmental factors on the dropout and intermittent nonattendance of an exercise program designed specifically for older, female, primary-care patients living in the inner city. Class-attendance records (n = 21,538) from a cohort 110 women were analyzed. Women who dropped out early had poorer perceived health and were more likely to report pain as an exercise barrier at baseline. Those who lived in a census tract where a larger percentage of workers walk to work were less likely to drop out early. Intermittent nonattendance was associated with adverse weather conditions including heat index above 90 ºF, wind-chill index below 20 ºF, overcast sky, and snow. Better attendance was associated with greater atmospheric pressure, as well as lower number of sunlight hours per day. This research highlights the need to better understand environmental barriers when promoting physical activities in older women.

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Kim Beals, Katherine A. Perlsweig, John E. Haubenstriker, Mita Lovalekar, Chris P. Beck, Darcie L. Yount, Matthew E. Darnell, Katelyn Allison, and Bradley C. Nindl

Mountain warfare cold weather (MWCW) training is essential to prepare military forces for operations in harsh environmental conditions. Rough terrain, inclement weather, transporting heavy loads, and carrying all food and fluids needed for the mission increase the physiological and operational

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Ben Larkin, Janet S. Fink, and Elizabeth Delia

will display their affiliation with the team via, for example, referring to the team as “we” or wearing team paraphernalia. In society, those who both BIRG and CORF might be referred to as “fair-weather” or “bandwagon” fans. In the context of sport, scholars have consistently found identification

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Nicholas M. Edwards, Gregory D. Myer, Heidi J. Kalkwarf, Jessica G. Woo, Philip R. Khoury, Timothy E. Hewett, and Stephen R. Daniels

Objective:

Evaluate effects of local weather conditions on physical activity in early childhood.

Methods:

Longitudinal prospective cohort study of 372 children, 3 years old at enrollment, drawn from a major US metropolitan community. Accelerometer-measured (RT3) physical activity was collected every 4 months over 5 years and matched with daily weather measures: day length, heating/cooling degrees (degrees mean temperature < 65°F or ≥ 65°F, respectively), wind, and precipitation. Mixed regression analyses, adjusted for repeated measures, were used to test the relationship between weather and physical activity.

Results:

Precipitation and wind speed were negatively associated with total physical activity and moderate-vigorous physical activity (P < .0001). Heating and cooling degrees were negatively associated with total physical activity and moderate-vigorous physical activity and positively associated with inactivity (all P < .0001), independent of age, sex, race, BMI, day length, wind, and precipitation. For every 10 additional heating degrees there was a 5-minute daily reduction in moderatevigorous physical activity. For every additional 10 cooling degrees there was a 17-minute reduction in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity.

Conclusions:

Inclement weather (higher/lower temperature, greater wind speed, more rain/snow) is associated with less physical activity in young children. These deleterious effects should be considered when planning physical activity research, interventions, and policies.

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Brian P. McCullough, Madeleine Orr, and Timothy Kellison

weather conditions would fall under sport ecology research, but have nothing to do with sustainability. Similarly, within industry practice, marketing rhetoric has convoluted many terms in sport ecology. The use of terms such as green and sustainability are misunderstood because their definitions are

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Joe Feinglass, Jungwha Lee, Pamela Semanik, Jing Song, Dorothy Dunlop, and Rowland Chang

Background:

This study analyzes Chicago-area weather effects on objectively measured physical activity over a 3-year period among a cohort of 241 participants in an on-going arthritis physical activity trial.

Methods:

Uniaxial accelerometer counts and interview data were analyzed for up to 6 weekly study waves involving 4823 days of wear. The effects of temperature, rainfall, snowfall and daylight hours were analyzed after controlling for participant characteristics, day of the week, and daily accelerometer wear hours in a mixed effects linear regression model.

Results:

Daylight hours, mean daily temperature < 20 or ≥ 75 degrees, and light or heavy rainfall (but not snowfall) were all significantly associated with lower physical activity after controlling for the significant effects of weekends, accelerometer wear hours, age, sex, type of arthritis, employment, Hispanic ethnicity, obesity, and SF36 physical and mental health scores.

Conclusions:

The cumulative effects of weather are reflected in a 38.3% mean monthly difference in daily counts between November and June, reflecting over 3 additional hours of sedentary time. Physical activity promotion programs for older persons with chronic conditions need lifestyle physical activity plans adapted to weather extremes.