Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 88 items for :

  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All
Restricted access

Christopher Kirk, Carl Langan-Evans, and James P. Morton

rapid weight loss (RWL) prior to their official weigh-in, followed by rapid weight gain (RWG) in the 24 hr between the weigh-in and the bout itself ( Gann et al., 2015 ). Methods employed are a combination of diet restriction and activities designed to induce extreme hypohydration including: fluid

Restricted access

Reid Reale, Gregory R. Cox, Gary Slater, and Louise M. Burke

We examined the relationship between the regain of body mass (BM) after weigh-in and success in real-life judo competition. Eighty-six (36 females, 50 males) senior judoka volunteered for this observational study of an international judo competition. Subjects were weighed at the official weigh-in and one hour before their first competition fight (15–20 hr later). Regain in BM after weigh-in was compared between medal winners and nonmedalists, winners and losers of each fight, males and females and across weight divisions. Heavyweights were excluded from analysis. Prefight BM was greater than BM at official weigh-in for both males and females, with % BM gains of 2.3 ± 2.0 (p ≤ .0001; ES= 1.59; CI95% [1.63, 2.98]) and 3.1 ± 2.2 (p ≤ .0001; ES = 2.03; CI95% [2.30, 3.89]), respectively. No significant differences were found between weight divisions for post weigh-in BM regain. Differences in post weigh-in BM regain were significantly higher in medal winners than nonmedalists for males and females combined (1.4 ± 0.4% BM; p = .0026; ES= 0.69; CI95% [0.05, 2.34]) and for males alone (1.5 ± 0.6% BM; p = .017; ES= 0.74; CI95% [0.02, 2.64]), but not for females (1.2 ± 0.7% BM; p = .096; ES = 0.58; CI95% [-0.02, 2.31]). Differences in BM regain after weigh-in between winners and losers were significant across all fights (0.9 ± 0.3% BM; p = .0021; ES= 0.43; CI95% [0.31, 1.41]) but not for first round fights (0.8 ± 0.5% BM; p = .1386, ES = 0.38; CI95% [-0.26, 1.86]). Winners showed a greater regain in BM post weigh-in than losers. This may reflect the greater magnitude of the BM loss needed to achieve weigh-in targets which also relates to the experience level of successful athletes.

Restricted access

Reid Reale, Gary Slater, and Louise M. Burke

It is common for athletes in weight-category sports to try to gain a theoretical advantage by competing in weight divisions that are lower than their day-to-day body mass (BM). Weight loss is achieved not only through chronic strategies (body-fat losses) but also through acute manipulations before weigh-in (“making weight”). Both have performance implications. This review focuses on Olympic combat sports, noting that the varied nature of regulations surrounding the weigh-in procedures, weight requirements, and recovery opportunities in these sports provide opportunity for a wider discussion of factors that can be applied to other weight-category sports. The authors summarize previous literature that has examined the performance effects of weightmaking practices before investigating the physiological nature of these BM losses. Practical recommendations in the form of a decision tree are provided to guide the achievement of acute BM loss while minimizing performance decrements.

Restricted access

Reid Reale, Gary Slater, Gregory R. Cox, Ian C. Dunican, and Louise M. Burke

, including 1 day of fluid restriction, achieved total mean BM losses of 3.2% and 2.4% for WL and CON, respectively. This acute BM loss was achieved in a scenario simulating the preparation for weigh-in and competition in combat sports, but without resorting to more extreme practices of severe energy

Restricted access

Holly R. Wyatt, Bonnie T. Jortberg, Christine Babbel, Sara Garner, Fang Dong, Gary K. Grunwald, and James O. Hill


This project addresses the need to identify feasible, effective weight-management programs that can be implemented within communities. The controversial role of dairy products in weight-management programs is also explored.


The “Calcium Weighs-In” weight-loss program placed equal emphasis on diet and physical activity and was delivered within a community intervention to promote dairy consumption in Calcium, New York. One hundred ninety-nine adults in Calcium, NY, participated in the weight-loss program. Weight loss, increase in dairy intake, increase in steps, decrease in blood pressure, decrease in waist circumference, and decrease in body mass index (BMI) were examined.


The mean weight loss for 116 subjects who completed the program was 6.0 ± 4.2 kg (mean ± SD, P < .0001) with a percent weight change of 6.4% ± 4.2% (P < .0001). An increase of 3582 ± 4070 steps (P < .0001), as well as an increase of 0.8 ± 1.2 dairy servings (P < .0001) was seen. Higher average dairy consumption was associated with greater weight loss and a greater decrease in waist circumference.


The results show that effective weight-management programs can be implemented within communities. The results are also consistent with recommendations to include low-fat dairy products and a physical activity component in weight-management programs.

Restricted access

Kadhiresan R. Murugappan, Ariel Mueller, Daniel P. Walsh, Shahzad Shaefi, Akiva Leibowitz, and Todd Sarge

to weigh-in and rapid weight loss (RWL) 48 hr prior to weigh-in ( Reale et al., 2017b ). The latter form of weight loss is typically driven by dehydration with techniques, such as prolonged sauna sessions, hot salt baths, and exercise in vapor-impermeable suits ( Connor & Egan, 2019 ). There are

Restricted access

Mathew Hillier, Louise Sutton, Lewis James, Dara Mojtahedi, Nicola Keay, and Karen Hind

, the process of “making weight” is imperative because failure to make weight results in bout cancellation or deduction from the athlete’s payment. Mixed martial arts athletes engage in gradual and rapid weight loss (RWL) prior to competition and then regain weight post weigh-in ( Coswig et al., 2018

Restricted access

Jose Morales, Carla Ubasart, Mónica Solana-Tramunt, Israel Villarrasa-Sapiña, Luis-Millán González, David Fukuda, and Emerson Franchini

performance are controversial and appear to depend on the skills assessed and the recovery time between the assessments and weigh-in procedures. 2 , 7 In general, combat sports require a high level of fitness that allows athletes to efficiently develop motor control and cognitive skills. 10 Specific

Restricted access

Vincent Baribeau, Christopher Kirk, Danny Q. Le, Arjun Bose, Ariel Mueller, Duncan French, Todd Sarge, Carl Langan-Evans, Reid Reale, and Kadhiresan R. Murugappan

restriction supplemented by extreme dehydration, achieved through activities such as training in vapor impermeable clothing, hot baths, and prolonged sauna sessions aiming to induce total body water loss, particularly in the 24 to 48 hours prior to weigh-in. 4 , 8 Extreme dehydration with RWL has been linked

Restricted access

Victor Silveira Coswig, Bianca Miarka, Daniel Alvarez Pires, Levy Mendes da Silva, Charles Bartel, and Fabrício Boscolo Del Vecchio

 al., 2013 ). The ability restore acute weight loss and physiological functioning is dependent on the time available between the weigh-in and the event. Recovery periods longer than 3 hr should be adequate to avoid physical fitness impairments in some circumstances ( Artioli et al., 2016 ), yet it is highly