rapid weight loss (RWL) prior to their official weigh-in, followed by rapid weight gain (RWG) in the 24 hr between the weigh-in and the bout itself ( Gann et al., 2015 ). Methods employed are a combination of diet restriction and activities designed to induce extreme hypohydration including: fluid
Christopher Kirk, Carl Langan-Evans, and James P. Morton
Reid Reale, Gregory R. Cox, Gary Slater, and Louise M. Burke
We examined the relationship between the regain of body mass (BM) after weigh-in and success in real-life judo competition. Eighty-six (36 females, 50 males) senior judoka volunteered for this observational study of an international judo competition. Subjects were weighed at the official weigh-in and one hour before their first competition fight (15–20 hr later). Regain in BM after weigh-in was compared between medal winners and nonmedalists, winners and losers of each fight, males and females and across weight divisions. Heavyweights were excluded from analysis. Prefight BM was greater than BM at official weigh-in for both males and females, with % BM gains of 2.3 ± 2.0 (p ≤ .0001; ES= 1.59; CI95% [1.63, 2.98]) and 3.1 ± 2.2 (p ≤ .0001; ES = 2.03; CI95% [2.30, 3.89]), respectively. No significant differences were found between weight divisions for post weigh-in BM regain. Differences in post weigh-in BM regain were significantly higher in medal winners than nonmedalists for males and females combined (1.4 ± 0.4% BM; p = .0026; ES= 0.69; CI95% [0.05, 2.34]) and for males alone (1.5 ± 0.6% BM; p = .017; ES= 0.74; CI95% [0.02, 2.64]), but not for females (1.2 ± 0.7% BM; p = .096; ES = 0.58; CI95% [-0.02, 2.31]). Differences in BM regain after weigh-in between winners and losers were significant across all fights (0.9 ± 0.3% BM; p = .0021; ES= 0.43; CI95% [0.31, 1.41]) but not for first round fights (0.8 ± 0.5% BM; p = .1386, ES = 0.38; CI95% [-0.26, 1.86]). Winners showed a greater regain in BM post weigh-in than losers. This may reflect the greater magnitude of the BM loss needed to achieve weigh-in targets which also relates to the experience level of successful athletes.
Reid Reale, Gary Slater, and Louise M. Burke
It is common for athletes in weight-category sports to try to gain a theoretical advantage by competing in weight divisions that are lower than their day-to-day body mass (BM). Weight loss is achieved not only through chronic strategies (body-fat losses) but also through acute manipulations before weigh-in (“making weight”). Both have performance implications. This review focuses on Olympic combat sports, noting that the varied nature of regulations surrounding the weigh-in procedures, weight requirements, and recovery opportunities in these sports provide opportunity for a wider discussion of factors that can be applied to other weight-category sports. The authors summarize previous literature that has examined the performance effects of weightmaking practices before investigating the physiological nature of these BM losses. Practical recommendations in the form of a decision tree are provided to guide the achievement of acute BM loss while minimizing performance decrements.
Holly R. Wyatt, Bonnie T. Jortberg, Christine Babbel, Sara Garner, Fang Dong, Gary K. Grunwald, and James O. Hill
This project addresses the need to identify feasible, effective weight-management programs that can be implemented within communities. The controversial role of dairy products in weight-management programs is also explored.
The “Calcium Weighs-In” weight-loss program placed equal emphasis on diet and physical activity and was delivered within a community intervention to promote dairy consumption in Calcium, New York. One hundred ninety-nine adults in Calcium, NY, participated in the weight-loss program. Weight loss, increase in dairy intake, increase in steps, decrease in blood pressure, decrease in waist circumference, and decrease in body mass index (BMI) were examined.
The mean weight loss for 116 subjects who completed the program was 6.0 ± 4.2 kg (mean ± SD, P < .0001) with a percent weight change of 6.4% ± 4.2% (P < .0001). An increase of 3582 ± 4070 steps (P < .0001), as well as an increase of 0.8 ± 1.2 dairy servings (P < .0001) was seen. Higher average dairy consumption was associated with greater weight loss and a greater decrease in waist circumference.
The results show that effective weight-management programs can be implemented within communities. The results are also consistent with recommendations to include low-fat dairy products and a physical activity component in weight-management programs.
Reid Reale, Gary Slater, Gregory R. Cox, Ian C. Dunican, and Louise M. Burke
, including 1 day of fluid restriction, achieved total mean BM losses of 3.2% and 2.4% for WL and CON, respectively. This acute BM loss was achieved in a scenario simulating the preparation for weigh-in and competition in combat sports, but without resorting to more extreme practices of severe energy
Kadhiresan R. Murugappan, Ariel Mueller, Daniel P. Walsh, Shahzad Shaefi, Akiva Leibowitz, and Todd Sarge
to weigh-in and rapid weight loss (RWL) 48 hr prior to weigh-in ( Reale et al., 2017b ). The latter form of weight loss is typically driven by dehydration with techniques, such as prolonged sauna sessions, hot salt baths, and exercise in vapor-impermeable suits ( Connor & Egan, 2019 ). There are
Mathew Hillier, Louise Sutton, Lewis James, Dara Mojtahedi, Nicola Keay, and Karen Hind
, the process of “making weight” is imperative because failure to make weight results in bout cancellation or deduction from the athlete’s payment. Mixed martial arts athletes engage in gradual and rapid weight loss (RWL) prior to competition and then regain weight post weigh-in ( Coswig et al., 2018
Jose Morales, Carla Ubasart, Mónica Solana-Tramunt, Israel Villarrasa-Sapiña, Luis-Millán González, David Fukuda, and Emerson Franchini
performance are controversial and appear to depend on the skills assessed and the recovery time between the assessments and weigh-in procedures. 2 , 7 In general, combat sports require a high level of fitness that allows athletes to efficiently develop motor control and cognitive skills. 10 Specific
Victor Silveira Coswig, Bianca Miarka, Daniel Alvarez Pires, Levy Mendes da Silva, Charles Bartel, and Fabrício Boscolo Del Vecchio
al., 2013 ). The ability restore acute weight loss and physiological functioning is dependent on the time available between the weigh-in and the event. Recovery periods longer than 3 hr should be adequate to avoid physical fitness impairments in some circumstances ( Artioli et al., 2016 ), yet it is highly
Joseph J. Matthews, Edward N. Stanhope, Mark S. Godwin, Matthew E.J. Holmes, and Guilherme G. Artioli
). The term “recovery duration” was used to describe the time from the official weigh-in to commencing competition (i.e., the time permitted for RWG to occur). Some studies have used the terms “acute weight loss,” “acute weight gain,” and “body mass regain” to describe changes in body mass. However, for