The present study was conducted to determine if female distance runners who report engaging in pathological food behaviors display the psychological characteristics of clinically diagnosed female eating-disordered patients. Comparisons were made among 29 eating-disturbed college runners, 31 normal college runners, 19 clinically diagnosed eating-disordered patients, and 34 nonathletic, non-eating-disordered college students. Measures included a 3-day diet journal, questionnaires collecting both personal information and information on eating behaviors and sports participation, the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), the Setting Conditions for Anorexia Nervosa Scale (SCANS), and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). Without reaching eating-disordered clinical levels, the eating-disturbed runners appeared on psychological inventories as being more concerned with food and dieting than were the comparison runners and non-eating-disordered nonathletes. Only the eating-disordered group presented with significant levels of psychopathology. Implications for the athletic community are discussed.
Renée M. Parker, Michael J. Lambert and Gary M. Burlingame
Paula J. Ziegler, Srimathi Kannan, Satya S. Jonnalagadda, Ambika Krishnakumar, Sara E. Taksali and Judith A. Nelson
The objectives of the study were to determine the nutrient intakes and to examine body image perceptions and weight concerns of elite female US international synchronized skaters. One hundred and twenty-three skaters (mean age = 17.0 ± 2.1 y; BMI = 21.32 ± 2.13) representing six US international synchronized skating teams from the 1998 competitive season participated in the study. Nutrient intakes were determined from 3-d dietary records. Body image perceptions were assessed from responses to silhouette drawings. Skaters completed an emotional and physical self-appraisal. Weight concerns were assessed using a self-administered validated weight history questionnaire. The reported energy intake was 26 kcal/kg. The contribution of carbohydrate, fat, and protein to total energy intake was 62%, 23%, and 15% for younger (14-18 y) and 62%, 24%, and 14%, respectively, for the older (19-30 y) skaters. Significant differences (P < 0.001) were observed between perceived ideal and current body shapes. The greater the dissatisfaction with physical and emotional self, the larger the discrepancy between current versus desired body shape. Results suggest that sports nutritionists should not only assess nutrition factors but also examine psychosocial and emotional correlates related to body image and weight concerns of synchronized skaters.
Laura D. DiPasquale and Trent A. Petrie
Eating disorder prevalence rates among athletes vary greatly because of the different ways in which researchers have measured and classified them, and the extent to which they are higher than those found among nonathletes remains unresolved. The present study examined prevalence of eating disorders, body image issues, and weight control behaviors using a valid diagnostic measure. Participants included 146 male and 156 female NCAA Division I student-athletes and a matched sample of 170 male and 353 female collegiate nonathletes. Overall, eating disorder prevalence rates and use of pathogenic weight control behaviors were lower among nonathletes than athletes. Rates for athletes in the current study were lower than previous studies. These findings are likely due to the lack of anonymity the athletes had when completing questionnaires, as data were collected through athletes’ preseason physicals, whereas nonathletes completed questionnaires anonymously over the Internet. Recommendations for athletic departments’ screening for eating disorders are made.
Nathalie Boisseau, Sonia Vera-Perez and Jacques Poortmans
Judo is a weight-class sport, meaning that there are weight-defined classes in competitions. Regular body weight restrictions and/or nutritional imbalances can alter growth and maturation states in adolescents. The aim of the present study was to estimate to what extent female judo athletes (age 16.1 ± 0.3 years) modified food and drink intakes 3 weeks and 1 week before competition. Our findings indicate that unbalanced dietary intakes and “weight cutting” might occur in female adolescent competitors. We conclude that dietary recommendations are compulsory in order to educate coaches and young judokas about adequate nutrition and safe weight control behaviors, as well as the dangers of rapid weight loss and dehydration during adolescence.
Jodi L. Southerland, Shimin Zheng, Mark Dula, Yan Cao and Deborah Leachman Slawson
The psychosocial benefits of participating in physical activity (PA) are well known; less is known about the relationship between suicidal behaviors and PA among adolescents, especially among middle school-aged youth. This study seeks to fill that gap by assessing the cross-sectional relationship between these variables.
A secondary analysis of the 2010 Tennessee Middle School Youth Risk Behavior Survey data was conducted among 65,182 middle school students. Items examined were PA, sports team engagement, physical education (PE) class, screen time, suicidal behaviors, drug/substance use, extreme weight control behaviors, weight status and weight misperceptions, and selected personal characteristics. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the association between PA, sports team engagement, and PE class attendance on suicidal behaviors.
Sports team engagement was significantly associated with suicidal thoughts, plans, and attempts even after controlling for other important variables. There was no relationship, however, between total PA or PE class attendance in univariate or multivariate models, respectively.
Findings suggest that sports team engagement is associated with reduced risk for suicidal thoughts, plans, and attempts, whereas, no relationships were found for PA or PE class attendance. Asking adolescents questions about sports team engagement may help clinicians screen for risk of suicidal behaviors.
Hyo Jung Yoon, Sang Ah Lee, Young Jun Ju, Jin Young Nam and Eun-Cheol Park
), weight control behavior (yes and no), perceived health status (good, normal, and bad), experience of depression during the past 2 weeks (yes and no), and region (metropolitan and nonmetropolitan). Evidence suggests that the prevalence of body image distortion is prevalent in South Korean students, which
Shelby J. Martin and Timothy Anderson
has been reported as high as 32% ( Sundgot‐Borgen & Torstveit, 2010 ), and up to 80% of athletes report engagement in at least one maladaptive weight/shape-control behavior ( Sundgot-Borgen, 1993 ). Across studies, disordered eating and weight-control behaviors have been found at significantly higher
Jenny H. Conviser, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney and Riley Nickols
, J.M. , & Petrie , T.A. ( 2013 ). Prevalence of disordered eating and pathogenic weight control behaviors among male collegiate athletes . Eating Disorders, 21 , 328 – 341 . 23767673 doi:10.1080/10640266.2013.797822 10.1080/10640266.2013.797822 Coker-Cranney , A. , & Reel , J.J. ( 2015
Shannon S. C. Herrick and Lindsay R. Duncan
methods (eg, compulsive exercise). 20 , 26 , 30 , 43 , 44 Body dissatisfaction caused by the inability to conform to hegemonic ideals of thinness appears to be a motivating factor for these weight-control behaviors. 43 Muscularity A drive for muscularity among SMM was reported in 5 articles (26%). 20
Dana K. Voelker and Justine J. Reel
gymnastics and figure skating through an exposé of athletes pressured to do whatever was necessary to succeed on a world stage, such as training and competing through significant injuries and engaging in unhealthy, and sometimes fatal, weight control behaviors. Through these stories, Ryan acknowledged she