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Kadhiresan R. Murugappan, Michael N. Cocchi, Somnath Bose, Sara E. Neves, Charles H. Cook, Todd Sarge, Shahzad Shaefi and Akiva Leibowitz

Rapid weight loss or “weight cutting” has become commonplace among athletes competing in wrestling, boxing, and martial arts. Mixed martial artists, like other combat sport athletes, are required to adhere to strict weight classifications designed to promote fair play among competitors. Intent

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Oliver R. Barley, Dale W. Chapman and Chris R. Abbiss

, athletes will often aim to lose substantial weight over the days and weeks leading up to the weigh-in, which is colloquially termed “weight cutting.” Following this, athletes aim to rapidly regain some of this weight and arrive at the competition heavier than their allocated weight class. This practice has

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Andreas M. Kasper, Ben Crighton, Carl Langan-Evans, Philip Riley, Asheesh Sharma, Graeme L. Close and James P. Morton

a 10-point strategic plan to protect against dangers of extreme weight cutting, notably a 10% maximal weight regain allowance following weigh-in, introduction of four new weight classes, “check weigh-ins,” and regular hydration testing ( Okamoto, 2017 ). Given the dangers associated with making

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Reid Reale, Gary Slater, Gregory R. Cox, Ian C. Dunican and Louise M. Burke

.1037/0033-2909.112.1.155 Crighton , B. , Close , G.L. , & Morton , J.P. ( 2015 ). Alarming weight cutting behaviours in mixed martial arts: A cause for concern and a call for action . British Journal of Sports Medicine, 50 ( 8 ), 446 – 447 . PubMed doi:10.1136/bjsports-2015-094732 10.1136/bjsports-2015-094732 Derkx , F

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Joseph J. Matthews, Edward N. Stanhope, Mark S. Godwin, Matthew E.J. Holmes and Guilherme G. Artioli

-0034 29757051 Crighton , B. , Close , G.L. , & Morton , J.P. ( 2016 ). Alarming weight cutting behaviours in mixed martial arts: A cause for concern and a call for action . British Journal of Sports Medicine, 50 ( 8 ), 446 – 447 . doi:10.1136/bjsports-2015-094732 10.1136/bjsports-2015-094732 Daniele

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Oliver R. Barley, Dale W. Chapman, Georgios Mavropalias and Chris R. Abbiss

Olympic success . Int J Sports Physiol Perform . 2017 ; 12 ( 2 ): 142 – 151 . PubMed ID: 27347784 doi: 10.1123/ijspp.2016-0211 27347784 5. Crighton B , Close GL , Morton JP . Alarming weight cutting behaviours in mixed martial arts: a cause for concern and a call for action . Br J Sports Med

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Robert A. Oppliger, Suzanne A. Nelson Steen and James R. Scott

Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the weight management (WM) behaviors of collegiate wrestlers after the implementation of the NCAA’s new weight control rules. Methods: In the fall of 1999, a survey was distributed to 47 college wrestling teams stratified by collegiate division (i.e., I, II, III) and competitive quality. Forty-three teams returned surveys for a total of 741 responses. Comparisons were made using the collegiate division, weight class, and the wrestler’s competitive winning percentage. Results: The most weight lost during the season was 5.3 kg ± 2.8 kg (mean ± SD) or 6.9% ± 4.7% of the wrestler’s weight; weekly weight lost averaged 2.9 kg ± 1.3 kg or 4.3% ± 2.3% of the wrestler’s weight; post-season, the average wrestler regained 5.5 kg ± 3.6 kg or 8.6% ± 5.4% of their weight. Coaches and fellow wrestlers were the primary influence on weight loss methods; however, 40.2% indicated that the new NCAA rules deterred extreme weight loss behaviors. The primary methods of weight loss reported were gradual dieting (79.4%) and increased exercise (75.2%). However, 54.8% fasted, 27.6% used saunas, and 26.7% used rubber/ plastic suits at least once a month. Cathartics and vomiting were seldom used to lose weight, and only 5 met three or more of the criteria for bulimia nervosa. WM behaviors were more extreme among freshmen, lighter weight classes, and Division II wrestlers. Compared to previous surveys of high school wrestlers, this cohort of wrestlers reported more extreme WM behaviors. However, compared to college wrestlers in the 1980s, weight loss behaviors were less extreme. Conclusions: The WM practices of college wrestlers appeared to have improved compared to wrestlers sampled previously. Forty percent of the wrestlers were influenced by the new NCAA rules and curbed their weight loss practices. Education is still needed, as some wrestlers are still engaging in dangerous WM methods.

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Reid Reale, Gary Slater and Louise M. Burke

It is common for athletes in weight-category sports to try to gain a theoretical advantage by competing in weight divisions that are lower than their day-to-day body mass (BM). Weight loss is achieved not only through chronic strategies (body-fat losses) but also through acute manipulations before weigh-in (“making weight”). Both have performance implications. This review focuses on Olympic combat sports, noting that the varied nature of regulations surrounding the weigh-in procedures, weight requirements, and recovery opportunities in these sports provide opportunity for a wider discussion of factors that can be applied to other weight-category sports. The authors summarize previous literature that has examined the performance effects of weightmaking practices before investigating the physiological nature of these BM losses. Practical recommendations in the form of a decision tree are provided to guide the achievement of acute BM loss while minimizing performance decrements.

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Reid Reale, Gregory R. Cox, Gary Slater and Louise M. Burke

Purpose:

Combat-sport athletes acutely reduce body mass (BM) before weigh-in in an attempt to gain a size/strength advantage over smaller opponents. Few studies have investigated these practices among boxers and none have explored the impact of this practice on competitive success.

Methods:

One hundred (30 women, 70 men) elite boxers participating in the Australian national championships were weighed at the official weigh-in and 1 h before each competition bout. Regain in BM after weigh-in was compared between finalists and nonfinalists, winners and losers of each fight, men and women, and weight divisions. Boxers were surveyed on their pre- and post-weigh-in nutrition practices.

Results:

The lightest men’s weight category displayed significantly greater relative BM regain than all other divisions, with no difference between other divisions. BM prebout was higher than official weigh-in for men (2.12% ± 1.62%; P < .001; ES = 0.13) and women (1.49% ± 1.65%; P < .001; ES = 0.11). No differences in BM regain were found between finalists and nonfinalists, winners and losers of individual bouts, or between preliminary or final bouts. BM regain was significantly greater (0.37% BM, P < .001; ES = 0.25) before an afternoon bout compared with a morning bout.

Conclusions:

Boxers engage in acute BM-loss practices before the official competition weigh-in, but this does not appear to affect competition outcomes, at least when weight regain between weigh-in and fighting is used as a proxy for the magnitude of acute loss. While boxers recognize the importance of recovering after weigh-in, current practice is not aligned with best-practice guidance.

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Damir Zubac, Hrvoje Karnincic and Damir Sekulic

Weight cutting is the practice of voluntary and rapid weight loss (RWL). RWL was previously defined as a rapid reduction of whole-body mass (BM; by >3%), primarily due to a loss of extracellular fluid, achieved within a 3-day period. 1 This practice is common among weight-class combat athletes to