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Roger L. Hammer, Daryl McCombs and A. Garth Fisher

It has been suggested that weight loss and regain, known as weight cycling, may result in greater body fatness and increased upper body fat distribution which may lead to adverse health consequences. These are concerns that may discourage some obese women from undergoing weight loss efforts. We retested 44 obese women, who took part in one of two weight control studies conducted in our laboratory, at either 6 or 12 months posttreatment. The followup study was performed to determine whether percent body fat and waist/hip ratio (WHR) had increased in those subjects who failed to maintain their weight loss. Subjects lost (mean + SD) 8.6 + 1.2 kg body weight, of which 7.0 + 1.0 kg was fat, and reduced their WHR by 0.03 + 0.006 (all p’s < .01) after either 12 or 16 weeks of treatment comprised of eating a low-fat diet, and in most cases performing endurance exercise training. At followup subjects were divided into groups based on the amount of weight regained. Those who regained (n=19) their lost weight were not fatter nor was their WHR higher than before the study began. These results do not support claims that weight cycling, in this case a single cycle, increases overall percentage of body fat or causes a redistribution of fat to the abdominal region of women.

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Craig A. Horswill

Amateur wrestlers practice weight loss for ergogenic reasons. The effects of rapid weight loss on aerobic performance are adverse and profound, but the effects on anaerobic performance are equivocal Anaerobic performance—strength and power—may be the most relevant type of performance to the wrestler. Maintenance of or even small decrements in anaerobic performance may translate into improvements in performance relative to the weight class, the factor by which wrestlers are matched for competition. During the recovery period between the official weigh-in and competition, wrestlers achieve at least partial nutritional recovery, which appears to benefit performance. Successive bouts of (a) weight loss to make weight and (b) recovery for performance lead to weight cycling. There is speculation that weight cycling may contribute to chronic glycogen depletion, reductions in fat-free weight, a decrease in resting metabolic rate, and an increase in body fat. The latter two would augment the difficulty of losing weight for subsequent weigh-ins. Most research indicates that the suppressed resting metabolic rate with weight loss in wrestlers appears to be transient, but subsequent research is needed for confirmation.

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Joseph J. Matthews, Edward N. Stanhope, Mark S. Godwin, Matthew E.J. Holmes and Guilherme G. Artioli

.1186/1550-2783-9-52 10.1186/1550-2783-9-52 Gann , J.J. , Tinsley , G.M. , La Bounty , P.M. ( 2015 ). Weight cycling prevalence, strategies, and effects on combat athletes . Strength and Conditioning Journal, 37 ( 5 ), 105 – 111 . doi:10.1519/SSC.0000000000000168 10.1519/SSC.0000000000000168 Horswill , C

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Ben-El Berkovich, Aliza H. Stark, Alon Eliakim, Dan Nemet and Tali Sinai

development in young athletes has not been systematically investigated. However, RWL has been documented to impact metabolism. The work of Steen et al. ( 1988 ) demonstrated that numerous bouts of weight cycling in adolescent wrestlers during the competition season were associated with a reduction in

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Reid Reale, Gary Slater and Louise M. Burke

meet deadlines and to cycle between restrictive eating behaviors and excessive exercise to overeating, particularly immediately after competitions. 17 Indeed, fighters who are self-reported as “weight cyclers” experience higher rates of obesity later in life. 35 Body image issues, 36 anxiety, and

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Nura Alwan, Samantha L. Moss, Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale, Ian G. Davies and Kevin Enright

to retain the bone mineral density compartment ( Layne & Nelson, 1999 ). Weight cycling Female physique athletes often experience rapid weight gain following competitions ( Andersen et al., 1995 ; Walberg-Rankin & Gwazdauskas, 1993 ) with one study reporting uncontrollable binge eating behavior

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Heidi L. Keller, Stephen E. Tolly and Patty S. Freedson

The sport of wrestling often encourages participants to engage in extreme weight loss practices in order to compete in a weight class one to three weight categories below normal weight. This review discusses the prevalence of the problem, methods wrestlers use to accomplish weight loss, and the health and performance consequences of rapid weight loss, with particular emphasis on weight cycling and minimal safe wrestling weight assessment. Some useful and practical recommendations for minimizing extreme weight loss practices are presented. Several state wrestling associations have adjusted their rules and regulations based on recommendations by organizations such as the American College of Sports Medicine to reduce the prevalence of the problem. Nevertheless, extreme weight loss continues to be a concern among health professionals, particularly with regard to health and performance.

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3 3 3 3 Weight Loss and Weight Cycling in Amateur Wrestlers: Implications for Performance and Resting Metabolic Rate Craig A. Horswill * 9 1993 3 3 3 3 245 245 260 260 10.1123/ijsn.3.3.245 Zinc Loss in Sweat of Athletes Exercising in Hot and Neutral Temperatures Kevin Tipton * Nancy R. Green

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7 7 1 1 Research Weight Cycling and Body Composition in Obese Women Roger L. Hammer Ph.D. Daryl McCombs M.S A. Garth Fisher Ph.D. 4 1998 7 7 1 1 1 1 12 12 10.1123/wspaj.7.1.1 Enhancing Women’s Physical Activity Involvement Karla A. Henderson 4 1998 7 7 1 1 13 13 26 26 10.1123/wspaj.7

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Louise M. Burke, Graeme L. Close, Bronwen Lundy, Martin Mooses, James P. Morton and Adam S. Tenforde

( Brugh et al., 2001 ; Dolan et al., 2012 ; Morton et al., 2010 ; Reale et al., 2018 ; Rouveix et al., 2007 ) • Weight classes of sport may result in dietary and weight loss strategies that contribute to LEA. • Short periods of weight cycling, a temporary LEA state, may not result in measurable long