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Boris Dugonjić, Saša Krstulović and Goran Kuvačić

very short time, athletes often apply rapid weight loss (RWL) methods (such as restriction of food and fluid intake, exercising in rubber or plastic suits, taking diet pills, and even vomiting; Franchini et al., 2012 ; Khodaee et al., 2015 ). These methods can be hazardous to health and sometimes

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Rudolph G. Villani, Jenelle Gannon, Megan Self and Peter A. Rich

L-Carnitine (L-C) transports fatty acids into mitochondria for oxidation and is marketed as a weight loss supplement. In a double-blind investigation to test the weight loss efficacy of L-C, 36 moderately overweight premenopausal women were pair matched on Body Mass Index (BMI) and randomly assigned to two groups (N = 18). For 8 weeks the L-C group ingested 2 g twice daily of L-C, while the placebo (P) group ingested the same amount of lactose. All subjects walked for 30 min (60—70% maximum heart rate) 4 days/ week. Body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE) and substrate utilization were estimated before and after treatment. For the subjects who completed the study (15 P, 13 L-C), no significant changes in mean total body mass (TBM), fat mass FM, and resting lipid utilization occurred over time, nor were there any significant differences between groups for any variable. Conversely REE increased significantly for all subjects, but no between group differences existed. Five of the L-C group experienced nausea or diarrhea and consequently did not complete the study. Eight weeks of L-C ingestion and walking did not significantly alter the TBM or FM of overweight women, thereby casting doubt on the efficacy of L-C supplementation for weight loss.

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David Thivel and Pascale Duché

Although physical activity is primarily considered for its effects on energy expenditure for prevention and treatment of both overweight and obesity, its role in the regulation and control of energy balance seems more complex. Not only does physical activity affect energy expenditure, it also leads to modifications in energy intake and appetite that have been identified in children and that should be considered for weight loss. It also appears that it may not systematically favor increased energy expenditure due to individual differences in compensatory responses. This brief paper summarizes the pediatric evidence regarding those potential compensatory responses to physical activity and suggests that these compensatory responses of increasing physical activity levels may depend on children’s adiposity status.

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Heidi L. Keller, Stephen E. Tolly and Patty S. Freedson

The sport of wrestling often encourages participants to engage in extreme weight loss practices in order to compete in a weight class one to three weight categories below normal weight. This review discusses the prevalence of the problem, methods wrestlers use to accomplish weight loss, and the health and performance consequences of rapid weight loss, with particular emphasis on weight cycling and minimal safe wrestling weight assessment. Some useful and practical recommendations for minimizing extreme weight loss practices are presented. Several state wrestling associations have adjusted their rules and regulations based on recommendations by organizations such as the American College of Sports Medicine to reduce the prevalence of the problem. Nevertheless, extreme weight loss continues to be a concern among health professionals, particularly with regard to health and performance.

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Oliver R. Barley, Dale W. Chapman and Chris R. Abbiss

(calorie) restriction. 4 , 8 , 9 Although there are data on the methods and magnitude of weight loss for more traditional combat sports, such as boxing, TKD, wrestling, and judo, there is a paucity of comprehensive data for other combat sports, including MMA and Muay Thai/kickboxing (MT/K). 4 , 6 – 10

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Amy J. Hector and Stuart M. Phillips

Elite athletes regularly expend high amounts of energy during training and competition. Weight loss in elite athletes, if desired, is commonly achieved by the introduction of a caloric deficit that consists of restriction of dietary energy combined with their training. Elite athletes undergo

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Ben-El Berkovich, Aliza H. Stark, Alon Eliakim, Dan Nemet and Tali Sinai

Rapid weight loss (RWL) or “cutting weight” prior to competition is well documented in weight category sports ( Franchini et al., 2012; Malliaropoulos et al., 2018 ). It is assumed that athletes who weigh the most within a given weight category have a physical advantage over lighter weight

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Christopher C. Imes, Yaguang Zheng, Dara D. Mendez, Bonny J. Rockette-Wagner, Meghan K. Mattos, Rachel W. Goode, Susan M. Sereika and Lora E. Burke

hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, sleep-disordered breathing, coronary heart disease, certain cancers, and all-cause mortality. 3 , 4 Standard behavioral treatment (SBT) is the recommended lifestyle intervention for weight loss. 5 Increased physical activity (PA), a reduced fat and caloric diet

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Kara L. Gavin, Julian Wolfson, Mark Pereira, Nancy Sherwood and Jennifer A. Linde

During the maintenance phase following weight loss programs, when intervention support for weight loss behaviors taper off, individuals are at higher risk for weight gain. Predicting and promoting successful maintenance is challenging and few randomized controlled trials have been conducted to

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Jose Morales, Carla Ubasart, Mónica Solana-Tramunt, Israel Villarrasa-Sapiña, Luis-Millán González, David Fukuda and Emerson Franchini

reduce their body mass to compete in an inferior category where they would potentially encounter lighter and weaker opponents. 2 Notably, official weigh-ins usually occur 6 to 24 hours before competition leading many athletes to pursue very aggressive rapid weight loss (RWL) strategies, 1 such as