( Mountjoy et al., 2014 ). Considering the health risks of RED-S and the increasing participation of females in physique events, the purpose of this narrative review was threefold: (a) to define the natural FP athlete, (b) to explore the physiological and psychological implications of the weight management
Nura Alwan, Samantha L. Moss, Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale, Ian G. Davies and Kevin Enright
Jan M. Moore, Anna F. Timperio, David A. Crawford, Cate M. Burns and David Cameron-Smith
Jockeys are required to maintain very low body weight and precise weight control during competition. This study examined the weight loss and weight management strategies of professional horseracing jockeys in the state of Victoria, Australia. An anonymous, self-completed questionnaire was administered (55% response rate, n=116). Almost half (43%) reported that maintaining riding weight was difficult or very difficult, with 75% routinely skipping meals. In preparation for racing, 60% reported that they typically required additional weight loss, with 81% restricting food intake in the 24 hours prior to racing. Additionally, sauna-induced sweating (29%) and diuretics (22%) were frequently employed to further aid in weight loss prior to racing. These rapid weight loss methods did not differ between the 51% of jockeys who followed a weight management plan compared to those who did not. The impact of these extreme weight loss practices on riding performance and health remains unknown.
Ross E. Andersen and John M. Jakicic
The aim of this review is to provide a scientific update on the current guidelines for both health and weight management. There has been confusion among health professionals as to which physical activity guidelines should be used to help various specific populations adopt more active lifestyles. We first review the history of the physical activity guidelines. Using the physical activity guidelines in clinical practice is also explored. We also describe common barriers to physical that overweight individuals report and we discuss when it is appropriate for a health care professional to seek a referral from an exercise scientist to help sedentary adults increase their levels of activity. It is important for individuals who care for overweight patients and sedentary adults to understand the current physical guidelines and how these guidelines can be worked into clinical practice.
Reid Reale, Gary Slater and Louise M. Burke
’ weight management behavior. Small amendments to the questionnaire for the current study involved the inclusion of questions regarding several novel RWL practices anecdotally used by fighters. The second section questioned participants about weight loss practices used in the current competition. This
Boris Dugonjić, Saša Krstulović and Goran Kuvačić
management behaviors. The higher the score calculated on each athlete, the more aggressive his or her weight management behavior. The detailed scoring system is displayed in the original article by Artioli et al. ( 2010 ). After the necessary changes had been made (original questionnaire modification), the
Kaisu Marjut Kaikkonen, Raija irmeli Korpelainen, Mikko P. Tulppo, Hannu Sakari Kaikkonen, Marja Liisa Vanhala, Mika Antero Kallio, Sirkka M. Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi and Juha Tapani Korpelainen
Autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction and obesity are intrinsically related to each other. In normal-weight subjects physical activity (PA) and fitness are related to cardiovascular autonomic regulation, providing evidence that aerobic training may improve ANS functioning measured by heart rate variability (HRV). The goal of this study was to investigate the association between lifetime PA, aerobic fitness and HRV in obese adults.
Participants included 107 (87 females) volunteers (mean age 44.5 years, median BMI 35.7) who completed health and lifestyle questionnaires and measurements of maximal aerobic performance, anthropometry and 24 h HRV.
In the multivariate linear regression analyses, lifetime physical activity explained 40% of the variance in normal R-R intervals (SDNN). Each 1-category increase in the activity index increased SDNN by 15.4 (P = .009) and 24% of the variance in natural logarithmic value of ultra-low frequency power (P = .050). High measured VO2max explained 45% of the variance in natural logarithmic value of high-frequency power (P = .009) and 25% of the variance in low frequency/high frequency ratio (P < .001).
Lifetime physical activity and aerobic fitness may reduce obesity-related health risks by improving the cardiac autonomic function measured by HRV in obese workingage subjects. This research supports the role of lifetime physical activity in weight management strategies and interventions to reduce obesity-related health risks.
Ben-El Berkovich, Alon Eliakim, Dan Nemet, Aliza Hannah Stark and Tali Sinai
Athletes competing in individual sports such as judo are categorized by weight. Before competitions, weight cutting is common. This cross-sectional study was designed to characterize and determine the prevalence of rapid weight loss (RWL) among adolescent judo competitors. Male athletes aged 12- to 17-years old (N = 108) were recruited from local judo teams. Each participant completed a validated questionnaire regarding RWL practices. Anthropometric measurements were also performed. Average age was 14.6 ± 1.6 years and all participants were of normal body mass index (BMI). RWL was practiced by 80% of the athletes before competition, beginning at an average age of 12.5 ± 2.2 years with the highest prevalence (~94%) in the oldest group of judoka (16–17.9 years). Precompetition weight loss duration was 8 ± 5.4 days, with an average weight reduction of 1.5 ± 1.1 kg. The number of weight loss efforts per athlete in the past season was 2.8 ± 2.2. RWL was achieved by increased physical activity (82.6%), skipped meals (56.3%), or fasting at least once (47%). Two-thirds of the athletes indicated that their coaches were the most influential figure in their decision to lose weight before competition. RWL is highly prevalent in adolescent judo competitors. The methods used by these athletes can potentially lead to significant health risks including compromised nutritional status, diminished physical performance and impaired growth and development. It is of great importance to insure that those who guide young adults in weight loss for competitive sports have the knowledge and understanding to make safe recommendations and appropriate decisions regarding achieving specific weight goals.
Liza Haqq, James McFarlane, Gudrun Dieberg and Neil Smart
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) affects 18–22% women of reproductive age. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantify expected benefits of lifestyle (exercise and dietary) interventions on various clinical outcomes in PCOS.
Potential studies were identified by conducting systematic search of PubMed, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Cochrane controlled trials registry (1966 to April 2013) using key concepts of PCOS, exercise, dietary and lifestyle interventions.
Significant improvements were seen in women who received lifestyle intervention vs. usual care, in body composition parameters of body mass index, mean difference (MD) = −0.12 kg.m−2 (95% CI [−0.22, −0.03], p = .009), body mass MD = −3.42 kg (95% CI [−4.86, −1.99], p < .00001), waist circumference MD = −1.64 cm (95% CI [−2.09, −1.19], p < .00001), waist−hip ratio MD = −0.03 (95% CI [−0.05, −0.01], p = .0002), and body fat % MD = −1.71% (95% CI [−3.10, −0.32], p = .02). Insulin did not improve, MD = −1.21 pmol/L (95% CI [−3.06, −0.63], p = .20). Lipid profile did not improve, total cholesterol MD = −0.02 mmol/L (95% CI [−0.25, 0.21], p = .89). C-reactive protein was significantly lower, MD = −0.47 mmol/L (95% CI [−0.80, −0.15], p = .004). Significant improvements were also observed in cardiorespiratory fitness with exercise alone reducing resting heart rate, MD = −1.89 beats.min−1 (95% CI [−2.90, −0.88], p = .0002), and peak VO2, MD = 4.86 ml.kg−1.min−1 (95% CI [2.83, 6.88], p < .00001). Lifestyle therapy also improved, peak VO2 MD = 5.09 ml.kg−1.min−1 (95% CI [3.13, 7.05], p < .00001).
Our analyses suggest lifestyle intervention is optimal for improving body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness in women with PCOS.
Marcus Smith, Rosemary Dyson, Tudor Hale, Matthew Hamilton, John Kelly and Peggy Wellington
This study examined the effects of serial reductions in energy and fluid intake on two simulated boxing performances separated by 2 days recovery. Eight amateur boxers (age: 23.6 ± 3.2 years; height 175 ± 5 cm; body mass [BM] 73.3 ± 8.3 kg [Mean ± SD]) performed two simulated boxing bouts (BB) under normal (N-trial) and restricted (R-trial) diets in a counterbalanced design over 5 days. The trials were separated by a 9-day period of normal dietary behavior (X-trial). BM was recorded on days 1, 3, and 5 of each trial. Simulated bouts of three, 3-min rounds with 1-min recovery were completed on days 3 (BB1) and 5 (BB2) of each 5-day trial. Punching force (N) was recorded from 8 sets of 7 punches by a purpose-built boxing ergometer. Heart rate (fC) was monitored continuously (PE3000 Polar Sports Tester, Kempele, Finland), and blood lactate (BLa) and glucose (BG) were determined 4-min post-performance (2300 StaPlus, YSI, Ohio). Energy and fluid intakes were significantly lower in the R-trial (p < .05). Body mass was maintained during the N-trial but fell 3% (p < .05) during the R-trial. There were no significant differences in end-of-bout fC or post-bout BG, but BLa was higher in the N- than the R-trial (p < .05). R-trial punching forces were 3.2% and 4.6% lower, respectively, compared to the corresponding N-trial bouts, but the differences did not reach statistical significance. These results suggest that energy and fluid restrictions in weight-governed sports do not always lead to a significant decrease in performance, but because of the small sample size and big variations in individual performances, these findings should be interpreted with care.
Amy Warren, Erin J. Howden, Andrew D. Williams, James W. Fell and Nathan A. Johnson
Postexercise fat oxidation may be important for exercise prescription aimed at optimizing fat loss. The authors examined the effects of exercise intensity, duration, and modality on postexercise oxygen consumption (VO2) and substrate selection/respiratory-exchange ratio (RER) in healthy individuals. Three experiments (n = 7 for each) compared (a) short- (SD) vs. long-duration (LD) ergometer cycling exercise (30 min vs. 90 min) matched for intensity, (b) low- (LI) vs. high-intensity (HI) cycling (50% vs. 85% of VO2max) matched for energy expenditure, and (c) continuous (CON) vs. interval (INT) cycling matched for energy expenditure and mean intensity. All experiments were administered by crossover design. Altering exercise duration did not affect postexercise VO2 or RER kinetics (p > .05). However, RER was lower and fat oxidation was higher during the postexercise period in LD vs. SD (p < .05). HI vs. LI resulted in a significant increase in total postexercise energy expenditure and fat oxidation (p < .01). Altering exercise modality (CON vs. INT) did not affect postexercise VO2, RER, or fat oxidation (p > .05). These results demonstrate that postexercise energy expenditure and fat oxidation can be augmented by increasing exercise intensity, but these benefits cannot be exploited by undertaking interval exercise (1:2-min work:recovery ratio) when total energy expenditure, duration, and mean intensity remain unchanged. In spite of the apparent benefit of these strategies, the amount of fat oxidized after exercise may be inconsequential compared with that oxidized during the exercise bout.