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Jennifer I. Gapin and Brianna Kearns

Athletes in sports with weight requirements may be especially vulnerable to eating disorders (EDs), yet there is limited research regarding collegiate rowers. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine prevalence rates of ED symptoms in 133 male and female competitive collegiate rowers in lightweight and open weight programs. This is the first study to examine eating pathology in rowers using a diagnostic tool based on DSM-IV criteria, the Q-EDD; and examining ED symptoms using the EDI-2 (drive for thinness [DT] and body dissatisfaction [BD]). The majority of rowers were classified as symptomatic (n = 65; 49%) or clinical (n = 5; 4%). Lightweight rowers had a significantly higher prevalence of eating pathology and a significantly greater DT and BD than open weight rowers. Males had considerably higher prevalence of eating pathology than females, but females had significantly greater BD. Ongoing monitoring of rowers’ eating behaviors is highly encouraged. Implications for counseling and prevention are discussed.

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Christina A. Geithner, Claire E. Molenaar, Tommy Henriksson, Anncristine Fjellman-Wiklund and Kajsa Gilenstam

1 SD after. Maturity-associated differences, or differences among early, average, and late maturers, are present in body size (height and weight), body composition, and fitness in both sexes. Early-maturing individuals are taller and heavier relative to their average- and late-maturing peers early

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Boris Dugonjić, Saša Krstulović and Goran Kuvačić

rounds ( Buse, 2009 ). Like in other combat sports, kickboxing competitions are organized in different weight categories. According to the World Association of Kickboxing Organizations, there are 12 official senior weight divisions (from under 51 kg to plus 91 kg). The purpose of athlete classification

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Reid Reale, Gary Slater and Louise M. Burke

All Olympic combat sports (currently, judo, taekwondo, boxing, and wrestling) separate athletes by body mass (BM) into “weight” divisions to minimize size/strength disparities. To ensure athletes meet weight requirements, official weigh-ins are held before competition. In addition to reducing body

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Lucia Andrea Leone and Dianne S. Ward

Background:

Obese women have lower levels of physical activity than nonobese women, but it is unclear what drives these differences.

Methods:

Mixed methods were used to understand why obese women have lower physical activity levels. Findings from focus groups with obese white women age 50 and older (N = 19) were used to develop psychosocial items for an online survey of white women (N = 195). After examining the relationship between weight group (obese vs. nonobese) and exercise attitudes, associated items (P < .05) were tested for potential mediation of the relationship between weight and physical activity.

Results:

Obese women were less likely than nonobese women to report that they enjoy exercise (OR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.2−0.8) and were more likely to agree their weight makes exercise difficult (OR = 10.6, 95% CI 4.2−27.1), and they only exercise when trying to lose weight (OR = 3.8, 95% CI 1.6−8.9). Enjoyment and exercise for weight loss were statistically significant mediators of the relationship between weight and physical activity.

Conclusions:

Exercise interventions for obese women may be improved by focusing on exercise enjoyment and the benefits of exercise that are independent of weight loss.

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Victor Silveira Coswig, Bianca Miarka, Daniel Alvarez Pires, Levy Mendes da Silva, Charles Bartel and Fabrício Boscolo Del Vecchio

utilizes body mass (BM) classes, which are proposed to equate fighters by strength ( Artioli et al., 2016 ; Franchini et al., 2012 ). However, some weigh-ins occur up to 24 hr before the fight, thus allowing for rapid weight loss (RWL) strategies based on dehydration and/or starvation ( Artioli et

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Joseph J. Matthews, Edward N. Stanhope, Mark S. Godwin, Matthew E.J. Holmes and Guilherme G. Artioli

Across combat sports, athletes compete in predetermined weight categories to be matched with an opponent of equal body mass, body size, strength, and power ( Franchini et al., 2012 ). However, for competition, athletes typically engage in a process called making weight, characterized by rapid

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George Antonogeorgos, Anastasios Papadimitriou, Demosthenes B. Panagiotakos, Kostas N. Priftis and Polyxeni Nikolaidou

Background:

Childhood obesity has become a modern epidemic with escalating rates. The aim of our study was to identify physical activity patterns among Greek schoolchildren and to examine their relationship with obesity.

Methods:

700 adolescents age 10 to 12 years were evaluated through a standardized questionnaire. Several demographic, socioeconomic, and physical activity characteristics were recorded. Physical activity was assessed and adolescents were characterized as active and nonactive. Body height and weight were measured and body mass index was calculated in order to to classify subjects as overweight or obese (IOTF classification). Multiple logistic regression and multivariate techniques (principal components analysis) were performed.

Results:

Eight physical activity patterns were identified, including increased physical activity in weekdays and weekends, sports physical activity, vigorous, moderate, and low physical activity. Increased physical activity on weekends and vigorous physical activity in boys were negatively associated with being overweight or obese (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.48−0.90 and OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.49−0.88, correspondingly) and moderate physical activity was marginally positively associated in girls (OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 0.97−1.69), after adjusting for several confounders.

Conclusions:

Our findings demonstrate the important role of vigorous physical activity in the maintenance of normal weight of adolescents

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Jessica L.J. Greenwood, Elizabeth A. Joy and Joseph B. Stanford

Background:

Only 25% of US adults achieve adequate physical activity (PA). Obtaining a PA history is an appropriate first step when evaluating this behavior. The Physical Activity Vital Sign (PAVS) is a clinical tool designed to screen for PA in adults.

Methods:

To determine how responses to the PAVS questions associate with BMI, overweight, and obesity, we performed a cross-sectional study utilizing the PAVS, and measured height and weight. Data were collected from adults at 2 clinics within the Utah Health Research Network.

Results:

Adjusting for demographic factors, BMI decreased 0.91 units for every reported day of PA during a typical week (P < .001), and the odds of obesity was significantly decreased by 0.73 for every day of PA reported in a typical week, (P = .001).

Conclusion:

Response to the PAVS question of typical behavior is highly correlated with BMI. Although response to the PAVS question of behavior last week is not correlated, this question may prompt accurate recall to the typical week question and help guide patient counseling. Our results support the construct validity for the use of the PAVS as a clinical screening tool and suggest the need for additional research to characterize the properties of the PAVS.

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Jan M. Moore, Anna F. Timperio, David A. Crawford, Cate M. Burns and David Cameron-Smith

Jockeys are required to maintain very low body weight and precise weight control during competition. This study examined the weight loss and weight management strategies of professional horseracing jockeys in the state of Victoria, Australia. An anonymous, self-completed questionnaire was administered (55% response rate, n=116). Almost half (43%) reported that maintaining riding weight was difficult or very difficult, with 75% routinely skipping meals. In preparation for racing, 60% reported that they typically required additional weight loss, with 81% restricting food intake in the 24 hours prior to racing. Additionally, sauna-induced sweating (29%) and diuretics (22%) were frequently employed to further aid in weight loss prior to racing. These rapid weight loss methods did not differ between the 51% of jockeys who followed a weight management plan compared to those who did not. The impact of these extreme weight loss practices on riding performance and health remains unknown.