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Kadhiresan R. Murugappan, Michael N. Cocchi, Somnath Bose, Sara E. Neves, Charles H. Cook, Todd Sarge, Shahzad Shaefi, and Akiva Leibowitz

Rapid weight loss or “weight cutting” has become commonplace among athletes competing in wrestling, boxing, and martial arts. Mixed martial artists, like other combat sport athletes, are required to adhere to strict weight classifications designed to promote fair play among competitors. Intent

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Grant C. Brechney, Jack Cannon, and Stephen P. Goodman

participants. 2 However, in an attempt to gain a competitive advantage many combat sport athletes manipulate their body mass through weight cutting so they are paired with an opponent of lesser body mass. 3 Weight cutting is a process involving rapid weight loss (RWL) so combat sport athletes can qualify for

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Kadhiresan R. Murugappan, Ariel Mueller, Daniel P. Walsh, Shahzad Shaefi, Akiva Leibowitz, and Todd Sarge

among mixed martial artists is that precompetition weight loss, known as “weight cutting,” may help athletes gain a competitive advantage over their opponents ( Franchini et al., 2012 ; Hillier et al., 2019 ). Precompetition weight loss generally occurs in two phases: acute weight loss 7–14 days prior

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Karen A. Smith, Robert J. Naughton, Carl Langan-Evans, and Kiara Lewis

. Discussion The majority of the 102 female taekwon-do athletes that completed the on-line questionnaire engaged in some form of weight cutting. This is consistent with other previous studies of males and females in combat sports ( Barley et al., 2019 ). The predominant weight loss strategies reported in our

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Oliver R. Barley, Dale W. Chapman, and Chris R. Abbiss

, athletes will often aim to lose substantial weight over the days and weeks leading up to the weigh-in, which is colloquially termed “weight cutting.” Following this, athletes aim to rapidly regain some of this weight and arrive at the competition heavier than their allocated weight class. This practice has

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Andreas M. Kasper, Ben Crighton, Carl Langan-Evans, Philip Riley, Asheesh Sharma, Graeme L. Close, and James P. Morton

a 10-point strategic plan to protect against dangers of extreme weight cutting, notably a 10% maximal weight regain allowance following weigh-in, introduction of four new weight classes, “check weigh-ins,” and regular hydration testing ( Okamoto, 2017 ). Given the dangers associated with making

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Christopher Kirk, Carl Langan-Evans, and James P. Morton

used to encourage athletes and coaches to make use of more sustainable RWL and RWG practices. Acknowledgments The authors give sincere thanks to the CSAC for allowing the use of their data in this study and, also, for taking the lead in starting to change the culture of “weight cutting” in MMA and

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Reid Reale, Gary Slater, Gregory R. Cox, Ian C. Dunican, and Louise M. Burke

. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry, 37 ( 3 ), 262 – 278 . doi:10.1258/0004563001899401 Cohen , J. ( 1992 ). A power primer . Psychological Bulletin, 112 ( 1 ), 155 – 159 . PubMed doi:10.1037/0033-2909.112.1.155 Crighton , B. , Close , G.L. , & Morton , J.P. ( 2015 ). Alarming weight cutting

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Joseph J. Matthews, Edward N. Stanhope, Mark S. Godwin, Matthew E.J. Holmes, and Guilherme G. Artioli

-0034 29757051 Crighton , B. , Close , G.L. , & Morton , J.P. ( 2016 ). Alarming weight cutting behaviours in mixed martial arts: A cause for concern and a call for action . British Journal of Sports Medicine, 50 ( 8 ), 446 – 447 . doi:10.1136/bjsports-2015-094732 10.1136/bjsports-2015-094732 Daniele

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Oliver R. Barley, Dale W. Chapman, Georgios Mavropalias, and Chris R. Abbiss

L . Acute-weight-loss strategies for combat sports and applications to Olympic success . Int J Sports Physiol Perform . 2017 ; 12 ( 2 ): 142 – 151 . PubMed ID: 27347784 doi:10.1123/ijspp.2016-0211 10.1123/ijspp.2016-0211 27347784 5. Crighton B , Close GL , Morton JP . Alarming weight