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Danielle Symons Downs, Krista S. Leonard, Jessica S. Beiler, and Ian M. Paul

– 4 EX is safe and recommended for most pregnant women without obstetric or medical complications. For example, perinatal EX can reduce maternal risk for gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) and fetal macrosomia, delivery complications, and future childhood

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Konstantinos D. Tambalis, Stamatis Mourtakos, and Labros S. Sidossis

Increased maternal prepregnancy body mass index (mppBMI) has previously been connected to higher offspring body mass index (BMI) and cardiometabolic factors in childhood and adulthood ( 10 , 13 , 14 , 27 ). It is also well known that women who exceeded the recommended gestational weight gain (GWG

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Kadhiresan R. Murugappan, Ariel Mueller, Daniel P. Walsh, Shahzad Shaefi, Akiva Leibowitz, and Todd Sarge

engage in water loading ( Reale et al., 2018 ) as well as thermal stress techniques than their counterparts ( Barley et al., 2019 ). Following a “weight cut,” athletes subsequently engage in rapid weight gain (RWG) through refeeding and rehydration to realize a potential size and/or strength advantage

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Motoko Taguchi, Akiko Hara, Hiroko Murata, Suguru Torii, and Takayuki Sako

Athletes often gain weight to build muscle mass and improve their performance. Weight gain results from deviations in the energy balance (EB; Tappy et al., 2013 ), and the EB must be positive in order to gain body weight (BW). The guidelines on sports nutrition for athletes ( Macedonio & Dunford

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Joseph J. Matthews, Edward N. Stanhope, Mark S. Godwin, Matthew E.J. Holmes, and Guilherme G. Artioli

weight loss (RWL) and subsequent rapid weight gain (RWG) in the days preceding the event. Making weight has been documented in mixed martial arts (MMA), boxing, judo, Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ), karate, Muay Thai, taekwondo, and wrestling ( Artioli et al., 2010b ; Brito et al., 2012 ; Matthews

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Sakiho Miyauchi, Satomi Oshima, Meiko Asaka, Hiroshi Kawano, Suguru Torii, and Mitsuru Higuchi

The purpose of this study was to determine whether overfeeding and high-intensity physical training increase organ mass. We examined this question using cross-sectional and longitudinal studies in which we measured collegiate male American football players. Freshman (n = 10) and senior players in their second and third years of college (n = 17) participated in the cross-sectional study. The same measurements of the same freshman players (n = 10) were assessed after the one-year weight gain period in the longitudinal study. Fat-free mass (FFM), skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue mass were obtained using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Liver, kidney, brain, and heart volumes were calculated using magnetic resonance imaging or echocardiography. Compared with the freshman players, the senior players had 10.8 kg more FFM, and 0.29 kg, 0.08 kg, and 0.09 kg greater liver, heart, and kidney mass, respectively. In the longitudinal study, FFM, liver, heart, and kidney mass of the freshman players increased by 5.2 kg, 0.2 kg, 0.04 kg, and 0.04 kg, respectively, after one year of overfeeding and physical training. On the other hand, the organ-tissue mass to FFM ratio did not change, except for the brain, in either the cross-sectional or longitudinal studies. Our results indicated that the organtissue masses increased with overfeeding and physical training in male collegiate American football players.

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Christopher Kirk, Carl Langan-Evans, and James P. Morton

rapid weight loss (RWL) prior to their official weigh-in, followed by rapid weight gain (RWG) in the 24 hr between the weigh-in and the bout itself ( Gann et al., 2015 ). Methods employed are a combination of diet restriction and activities designed to induce extreme hypohydration including: fluid

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Larry Tucker and Travis Peterson

Background:

This study was conducted to determine if cardiorespiratory fitness at baseline, and changes in fitness, influence risk of weight gain (≥3 kg) over 20 months. Another aim was to ascertain if potential confounding factors, including age, education, strength training, energy intake, and weight, influence risk of weight gain.

Methods:

In a prospective study of 257 women, fitness (VO2max) was assessed using a graded, maximal treadmill test at baseline and follow-up. Energy intake was measured using 7-day, weighed food records. Subjects were divided into quartiles based on fitness. Risk ratios were used to show the risk of weight gain among those who were fit at baseline compared with their counterparts.

Results:

Most women gained weight and 23% gained ≥3 kg. Mean VO2max was 35.7 ± 7.2 mL·kg−1·min−1. Women with low-fitness at baseline had 3.18 times (95% CI: 1.46 to 6.93) greater risk, and moderately fit women had 2.24 times (95% CI: 1.04 to 4.82) greater risk of weight gain than women in the high-fitness quartile. Adjusting for potential confounders had little effect on results.

Conclusions:

High levels of fitness seem to help protect middle-aged women against weight gain, whereas low and moderate fitness increase risk of weight gain over time.

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Rebecca A. Schlaff, Claudia Holzman, Lanay M. Mudd, Karin A. Pfeiffer, and James M. Pivarnik

Background:

Little is known about how leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) influences gestational weight gain (GWG) among body mass index (BMI) categories. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between pregnancy LTPA and the proportion of normal, overweight, and obese women who meet GWG recommendations.

Methods:

Participants included 449 subcohort women from the Pregnancy Outcomes and Community Health (POUCH) study. LTPA was collapsed into 3 categories [(None, < 7.5 kcal/kg/wk (low), ≥ 7.5 kcal/kg/wk (recommended)]. GWG was categorized according to IOM recommendations (low, recommended, or excess). Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate relationships among LTPA, BMI, and GWG.

Results:

Overweight women were more likely to have high GWG vs. normal weight women (OR = 2.3, 95% CI 1.3–4.0). Obese women were more likely to experience low GWG (OR = 7.3, 95% CI 3.6–15.1; vs. normal and overweight women) or excess GWG (OR = 3.5, 95% CI 1.9–6.5; vs. normal weight women). LTPA did not vary by prepregnancy BMI category (P = .55) and was not related to GWG in any prepregnancy BMI category (P = .78).

Conclusions:

Regardless of prepregnancy BMI, LTPA did not affect a woman’s GWG according to IOM recommendations. Results may be due to LTPA not differing among BMI categories.

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Kristen Holm, Holly Wyatt, James Murphy, James Hill, and Lorraine Odgen

Background:

This study examined the association between parent and child change in physical activity during a family-based intervention for child weight gain prevention.

Methods:

Daily step counts were recorded for parents and children in 83 families given a goal to increase activity by 2000 steps per day above baseline. Linear mixed effects models were used to predict child change in daily step counts from parental change in step counts.

Results:

Both maternal (P < .0001) and paternal (P < .0001) change in step counts for the current day strongly predicted child change in step counts for that day. On average, a child took an additional 2117.6 steps above baseline on days his or her mother met her goal versus 1175.2 additional steps when the mother did not meet her goal. The respective values were 1598.0 versus 1123.1 steps for fathers. Day of week moderated the maternal effect (P = .0019), with a larger impact on Saturday and Sunday compared with weekdays. A similar but nonsignificant pattern was observed for fathers.

Conclusions:

Encouraging parents to increase physical activity, particularly on weekends, may be a highly effective way to leverage parental involvement in interventions to increase children’s physical activity.