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The Influence of Exercise, Lifestyle Behavior Components, and Physical Fitness on Maternal Weight Gain, Postpartum Weight Retention, and Excessive Gestational Weight Gain

Pedro Acosta-Manzano, Francisco M. Acosta, Irene Coll-Risco, Lidia Romero-Gallardo, Marta Flor-Alemany, Luis J. Martínez-González, María Jesús Alvarez-Cubero, Víctor Segura-Jiménez, and Virginia A. Aparicio

In pregnancy, not only adverse phenotypes such as obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus, but also excessive weight gain and postpartum weight retention are strong, independent determinants of birth complications and future maternal and offspring diseases ( Durnwald, 2015 ; Gaillard et

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Predictors of Postpartum Exercise According to Prepregnancy Body Mass Index and Gestational Weight Gain

Danielle Symons Downs, Krista S. Leonard, Jessica S. Beiler, and Ian M. Paul

– 4 EX is safe and recommended for most pregnant women without obstetric or medical complications. For example, perinatal EX can reduce maternal risk for gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) and fetal macrosomia, delivery complications, and future childhood

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Associations of Maternal Prepregnancy Body Mass Index and Gestational Weight Gain With Physical Fitness in Childhood

Konstantinos D. Tambalis, Stamatis Mourtakos, and Labros S. Sidossis

Increased maternal prepregnancy body mass index (mppBMI) has previously been connected to higher offspring body mass index (BMI) and cardiometabolic factors in childhood and adulthood ( 10 , 13 , 14 , 27 ). It is also well known that women who exceeded the recommended gestational weight gain (GWG

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Rapid Weight Gain and Weight Differential Predict Competitive Success in 2100 Professional Combat-Sport Athletes

Vincent Baribeau, Christopher Kirk, Danny Q. Le, Arjun Bose, Ariel Mueller, Duncan French, Todd Sarge, Carl Langan-Evans, Reid Reale, and Kadhiresan R. Murugappan

to severe adverse health effects including acute kidney injury 9 and even fatalities. 2 , 10 Following official weigh-in, athletes attempt to rehydrate and refuel to elicit rapid weight gain (RWG) over the 26 to 32 hours preceding the bout. 9 , 11 , 12 Evidence has highlighted that even a

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Rapid Weight Gain Following Weight Cutting in Male and Female Professional Mixed Martial Artists

Kadhiresan R. Murugappan, Ariel Mueller, Daniel P. Walsh, Shahzad Shaefi, Akiva Leibowitz, and Todd Sarge

engage in water loading ( Reale et al., 2018 ) as well as thermal stress techniques than their counterparts ( Barley et al., 2019 ). Following a “weight cut,” athletes subsequently engage in rapid weight gain (RWG) through refeeding and rehydration to realize a potential size and/or strength advantage

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Increasing Meal Frequency in Isoenergetic Conditions Does Not Affect Body Composition Change and Appetite During Weight Gain in Japanese Athletes

Motoko Taguchi, Akiko Hara, Hiroko Murata, Suguru Torii, and Takayuki Sako

Athletes often gain weight to build muscle mass and improve their performance. Weight gain results from deviations in the energy balance (EB; Tappy et al., 2013 ), and the EB must be positive in order to gain body weight (BW). The guidelines on sports nutrition for athletes ( Macedonio & Dunford

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The Magnitude of Rapid Weight Loss and Rapid Weight Gain in Combat Sport Athletes Preparing for Competition: A Systematic Review

Joseph J. Matthews, Edward N. Stanhope, Mark S. Godwin, Matthew E.J. Holmes, and Guilherme G. Artioli

weight loss (RWL) and subsequent rapid weight gain (RWG) in the days preceding the event. Making weight has been documented in mixed martial arts (MMA), boxing, judo, Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ), karate, Muay Thai, taekwondo, and wrestling ( Artioli et al., 2010b ; Brito et al., 2012 ; Matthews

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Organ Size Increases With Weight Gain in Power-Trained Athletes

Sakiho Miyauchi, Satomi Oshima, Meiko Asaka, Hiroshi Kawano, Suguru Torii, and Mitsuru Higuchi

The purpose of this study was to determine whether overfeeding and high-intensity physical training increase organ mass. We examined this question using cross-sectional and longitudinal studies in which we measured collegiate male American football players. Freshman (n = 10) and senior players in their second and third years of college (n = 17) participated in the cross-sectional study. The same measurements of the same freshman players (n = 10) were assessed after the one-year weight gain period in the longitudinal study. Fat-free mass (FFM), skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue mass were obtained using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Liver, kidney, brain, and heart volumes were calculated using magnetic resonance imaging or echocardiography. Compared with the freshman players, the senior players had 10.8 kg more FFM, and 0.29 kg, 0.08 kg, and 0.09 kg greater liver, heart, and kidney mass, respectively. In the longitudinal study, FFM, liver, heart, and kidney mass of the freshman players increased by 5.2 kg, 0.2 kg, 0.04 kg, and 0.04 kg, respectively, after one year of overfeeding and physical training. On the other hand, the organ-tissue mass to FFM ratio did not change, except for the brain, in either the cross-sectional or longitudinal studies. Our results indicated that the organtissue masses increased with overfeeding and physical training in male collegiate American football players.

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Worth the Weight? Post Weigh-In Rapid Weight Gain is Not Related to Winning or Losing in Professional Mixed Martial Arts

Christopher Kirk, Carl Langan-Evans, and James P. Morton

rapid weight loss (RWL) prior to their official weigh-in, followed by rapid weight gain (RWG) in the 24 hr between the weigh-in and the bout itself ( Gann et al., 2015 ). Methods employed are a combination of diet restriction and activities designed to induce extreme hypohydration including: fluid

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Fitness Level and Risk of Weight Gain in Middle-Age Women: A Prospective Cohort Study

Larry Tucker and Travis Peterson


This study was conducted to determine if cardiorespiratory fitness at baseline, and changes in fitness, influence risk of weight gain (≥3 kg) over 20 months. Another aim was to ascertain if potential confounding factors, including age, education, strength training, energy intake, and weight, influence risk of weight gain.


In a prospective study of 257 women, fitness (VO2max) was assessed using a graded, maximal treadmill test at baseline and follow-up. Energy intake was measured using 7-day, weighed food records. Subjects were divided into quartiles based on fitness. Risk ratios were used to show the risk of weight gain among those who were fit at baseline compared with their counterparts.


Most women gained weight and 23% gained ≥3 kg. Mean VO2max was 35.7 ± 7.2 mL·kg−1·min−1. Women with low-fitness at baseline had 3.18 times (95% CI: 1.46 to 6.93) greater risk, and moderately fit women had 2.24 times (95% CI: 1.04 to 4.82) greater risk of weight gain than women in the high-fitness quartile. Adjusting for potential confounders had little effect on results.


High levels of fitness seem to help protect middle-aged women against weight gain, whereas low and moderate fitness increase risk of weight gain over time.