Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 34 items for :

  • "weight making" x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All
Open access

Eric Tsz-Chun Poon, John O’Reilly, Sinead Sheridan, Michelle Mingjing Cai, and Stephen Heung-Sang Wong

have insufficient time to replenish energy and fluid depleted during weight making ( Dolan et al., 2012a ; Wilson et al., 2014a ). Consequently, use of potentially dangerous acute and chronic weight-making strategies, including extreme calorie restriction, sporadic eating, self-induced vomiting soon

Full access

George Wilson, Neil Chester, Martin Eubank, Ben Crighton, Barry Drust, James P. Morton, and Graeme L. Close

Professional jockeys are unique among weight-making athletes, as they are often required to make weight daily and, in many cases, all year-round. Common methods employed by jockeys include dehydration, severe calorie restriction, and sporadic eating, all of which have adverse health effects. In contrast, this article outlines a structured diet and exercise plan, employed by a 22-yr-old professional National Hunt jockey in an attempt to reduce weight from 70.3 to 62.6 kg, that does not rely on any of the aforementioned techniques. Before the intervention, the client’s typical daily energy intake was 8.2 MJ (42% carbohydrate [CHO], 36% fat, 22% protein) consumed in 2 meals only. During the 9-wk intervention, daily energy intake was approximately equivalent to resting metabolic rate, which the athlete consumed as 6 meals per day (7.6 MJ, 46% CHO, 19% fat, 36% protein). This change in frequency and composition of energy intake combined with structured exercise resulted in a total body-mass loss of 8 kg, corresponding to reductions in body fat from 14.5% to 9%. No form of intentional dehydration occurred throughout this period, and mean urine osmolality was 285 mOsm/kg (SD 115 mOsm/kg). In addition, positive changes in mood scores (BRUMS scale) also occurred. The client was now able to ride light for the first time in his career without dehydrating, thereby challenging the cultural practices inherent in the sport.

Full access

George Wilson, Dan Martin, James P. Morton, and Graeme L. Close

’s perception of nutritional and weight-making practices of professional jockeys . Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health, 9 ( 5 ), 568 – 582 . doi:10.1080/2159676X.2017.1340330 Morton , J.P. , Robertson , C. , Sutton , L. , & MacLaren , D.P. ( 2010 ). Making the weight: A case study

Restricted access

George Wilson, Jerry Hill, Daniel Martin, James P. Morton, and Graeme L. Close

’s perception of nutritional and weight-making practices of professional jockeys . Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health, 9 ( 5 ), 568 – 582 . doi:10.1080/2159676X.2017.1340330 10.1080/2159676X.2017.1340330 Nana , A. , Slater , G.J. , Stewart , A.D. , & Burke , L.M. ( 2015

Restricted access

Wee Lun Foo, Jake D. Harrison, Frank T. Mhizha, Carl Langan-Evans, James P. Morton, Jamie N. Pugh, and Jose L. Areta

Athletes from weight-sensitive sports are reported to consume low-fiber diets (LOW) to induce acute reductions in body mass (BM). However, evidence supporting their efficacy is anecdotal. Therefore, we aimed to determine the effect of a LOW on acute changes in BM. Nineteen healthy males (32 ± 10 years, 1.79 ± 0.07 m, 77.5 ± 8.1 kg) consumed their habitual diet (∼30 g fiber/day) for 7 consecutive days followed by 4 days of a LOW (<10 g fiber/day) that was matched for energy and macronutrient content. Participants also matched their daily exercise load during LOW to that completed during habitual diet (p = .669, average 257 ± 141 arbitrary units). BM was significantly reduced in LOW versus habitual diet after 4 days (Δ = 0.40 ± 0.77 kg or 0.49% ± 0.91%, p < .05, effect size [ES] [95% confidence interval] = −0.53 [−1.17, 0.12]) and on the morning of Day 5 (Δ = 0.58 ± 0.83 kg or 0.74% ± 0.99%, p < .01, ES = −0.69 [−1.34, −0.03]). LOW resulted in moderately higher hunger (Δ = 5 ± 9 mm, p = .015, ES = 0.55 [−0.09, 1.20]), a decline in stool frequency from 2 ± 0 to 1 ± 0 bowel movements per day (p = .012, ES = 0.64 [−0.02, 1.29]) and stool softness decrease (p = .005). Nonetheless, participants reported the diet to be tolerable (n = 18/19) and were willing to repeat it (n = 16/19). Data demonstrate for the first time that consumption of a short-term LOW induces reductions in BM.

Restricted access

Andreas M. Kasper, Ben Crighton, Carl Langan-Evans, Philip Riley, Asheesh Sharma, Graeme L. Close, and James P. Morton

The aim of the present case study was to quantify the physiological and metabolic impact of extreme weight cutting by an elite male mixed martial arts athlete. Throughout an 8-week period, we obtained regular assessments of body composition, resting metabolic rate, peak oxygen uptake, and blood clinical chemistry to assess endocrine status, lipid profiles, hydration, and kidney function. The athlete adhered to a “phased” weight loss plan consisting of 7 weeks of reduced energy (ranging from 1,300 to 1,900 kcal/day) intake (Phase 1), 5 days of water loading with 8 L/day for 4 days followed by 250 ml on Day 5 (Phase 2), 20 hr of fasting and dehydration (Phase 3), and 32 hr of rehydration and refueling prior to competition (Phase 4). Body mass declined by 18.1% (80.2 to 65.7 kg) corresponding to changes of 4.4, 2.8, and 7.3 kg in Phases 1, 2, and 3, respectively. We observed clear indices of relative energy deficiency, as evidenced by reduced resting metabolic rate (−331 kcal), inability to complete performance tests, alterations to endocrine hormones (testosterone: <3 nmol/L), and hypercholesterolemia (>6 mmol/L). Moreover, severe dehydration (reducing body mass by 9.3%) in the final 24 hr prior to weigh-in-induced hypernatremia (plasma sodium: 148 mmol/L) and acute kidney injury (serum creatinine: 177 μmol/L). These data, therefore, support publicized reports of the harmful (and potentially fatal) effects of extreme weight cutting in mixed martial arts athletes and represent a call for action to governing bodies to safeguard the welfare of mixed martial arts athletes.

Restricted access

A.P. (Karin) de Bruin and Raôul R.D. Oudejans

about their eating, dieting and weight making habits during their life and the factors that had influenced these habits. They were told that participation was strictly confidential and voluntary. All women agreed and subsequently a date and place were set for each interview, conducted by the first

Restricted access

Joseph John Matthews and Ceri Nicholas

There is a lack of research documenting the weight-making practices of mixed-martial-arts (MMA) competitors. The purpose of the investigation was to quantify the magnitude and identify the methods of rapid weight loss (RWL) and rapid weight gain (RWG) in MMA athletes preparing for competition. Seven athletes (mean ± SD, age 24.6 ± 3.5 yrs, body mass 69.9 ± 5.7 kg, competitive experience 3.1 ± 2.2 yrs) participated in a repeated-measures design. Measures of dietary intake, urinary hydration status, and body mass were recorded in the week preceding competition. Body mass decreased significantly (p < .0005) from baseline by 5.6 ± 1.4 kg (8 ± 1.8%). During the RWG period (32 ± 1 hr) body mass increased significantly (p < .001) by 7.4 ± 2.8 kg (11.7 ± 4.7%), exceeding RWL. Mean energy and carbohydrate intake were 3176 ± 482 kcal・day-1 and 471 ± 124 g・day-1, respectively. At the official weigh-in 57% of athletes were dehydrated (1033 ± 19 mOsmol・kg-1) and the remaining 43% were severely dehydrated (1267 ± 47 mOsmol・kg-1). Athletes reported using harmful dehydration-based RWL strategies, including sauna (43%) and training in plastic suits (43%). Results demonstrated RWG greater than RWL, this is a novel finding and may be attributable to the 32 hr duration from weigh-in till competition. The observed magnitude of RWL and strategies used are comparable to those which have previously resulted in fatalities. Rule changes which make RWL impractical should be implemented with immediate effect to ensure the health, safety and wellbeing of competitors.

Restricted access

Stefan Pettersson and Christina M. Berg

The purpose of the current study was to investigate elite female (n = 21) and male (n = 47) combat sports athletes’ (n = 68; mean age (± SD) 21.3 ± 3.8 years; mean height 177 ± 10.2 cm) dietary intake between weigh-in and the first bout in Olympic combat sports. The data were collected at 6 separate tournaments and measurements included estimated food records, time for recovery, and body weight (BW) at weigh-in and first match. In total, 33 athletes participated in wrestling and taekwondo, sports with extended recovery times, and 35 athletes in judo and boxing, sports with limited recovery time. The results displayed that despite a mean consumption of food and drinks corresponding to 4.2 kg, the athletes only regained an average of 1.9 kg BW during recovery. Water accounted for 86% of the total intake. For each liter of water consumed, athletes gained 0.57 kg BW, when excluding heavy weight athletes (n = 5). Carbohydrate consumption was 5.5 g/kg BW, compared with the recommended 8–10 g/kg BW. In total, one-quarter of the consumed water originated from carbohydrate-rich drinks. Given the average recovery time of 18 (wrestling, taekwondo) versus 8 hr (judo, boxing), the former group consumed twice the amount of water, carbohydrates, protein, and fat as the latter group. In conclusion, a large proportion of the participants did not meet the recovery nutrition guidelines for carbohydrates. In addition, the discrepancy between nutrient intake and weight gain points to the physiological barriers to retaining fluids during a limited recovery time after engaging in weight making practices.

Restricted access

James P. Morton, Colin Robertson, Laura Sutton, and Don P. M

Professional boxing is a combat sport categorized into a series of weight classes. Given the sport’s underpinning culture, boxers’ typical approach to “making weight” is usually via severe acute and/or chronic energy restriction and dehydration. Such practices have implications for physical performance and also carry health risks. This article provides a case-study account outlining a more structured and gradual approach to helping a professional male boxer make weight for the 59-kg superfeatherweight division. Over a 12-week period, the client athlete adhered to a daily diet approximately equivalent to his resting metabolic rate (6–7 MJ; 40% carbohydrate, 38% protein, 22% fat). Average body-mass loss was 0.9 ± 0.4 kg/wk, equating to a total loss of 9.4 kg. This weight loss resulted in a decrease in percent body fat from 12.1% to 7.0%. In the 30 hr between weigh-in and competition, the client consumed a high-carbohydrate diet (12 g/kg body mass) supported by appropriate hydration strategies and subsequently entered the ring at a fighting weight of 63.2 kg. This nutritional strategy represented a major change in the client’s habitual weight-making practices and did not rely on any form of intended dehydration during the training period or before weighing in. The intervention demonstrates that a more gradual approach to making weight in professional boxing can be successfully achieved via a combination of restricted energy intake and increased energy expenditure, providing there is willingness on the part of the athlete and coaches involved to adopt novel practices.