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Accessibility and Usability of Selected Weight Training Systems

Ralph W. Smith and Tammy J. Buckley

This pilot study examined the accessibility and usability of three weight training systems for athletes with spinal cord injuries. The systems were Universal Centurion II, Nautilus, and Keiser Cam II. Accessibility factors were direction of transfer, ease of transfer, and access of machine components. Usability includes use with/without assistance, necessary adaptations, and adjustability of resistance level and seat location. Also examined were minimum resistance level and feasibility of use without application of bilateral force. One 25-year-old male athlete with paraplegia (T5-6) served as the demonstrator for all evaluations. A matrix of accessibility and usability was constructed for 10 upper-body exercises that could be performed on at least two of the three weight training systems. Overall, the Keiser Cam II system was judged superior on accessibility and usability for spinal cord-injured athletes; however, the Nautilus system provided the most comprehensive upper-body workout.

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Students’ Participation Styles in Two University Weight Training Classes

Gregg Bennett

The purpose of this study was to describe the participation styles of students enrolled in two basic instruction weight training classes. The students’ participation styles fell somewhere on a continuum between slackin’ and sweatin’. Through the use of class observations and interviews with the students and the instructors, six styles of participation were identified within both of these categories. Four participation styles were revealed in the slackin’ category. These were (a) socializers, (b) manipulators, (c) underachievers, and (d) minimalists. The two styles identified in the sweatin’ category were (a) sidekicks and (b) ex-athletes. The transtheoretical model for behavior modification was used to describe the students’ activity levels in the classes and predict exercise adherence among the twelve participants. Further in-depth studies are needed to assess the state of basic instruction program classes within individual programs and classes throughout the nation.

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Effects of Long-Term Aerobic or Weight Training Regimens on Gait in an Older, Osteoarthritic Population

Stephen P. Messier, Christopher D. Thompson, and Walter H. Ettinger Jr.

The purpose of this study was to determine the long-term effects of aerobic walking and weight training interventions on gait mechanics and knee pain in older adults with knee osteoarthritis (OA). One hundred three older adults (age ≥60 years) with radio-graphic evidence of knee OA were randomized to one of three treatment groups: aerobic walking, health education control, or weight training. Both exercise intervention groups exercised 3 days · week-1 for 18 months. The aerobic group significantly improved temporal components of gait as well as knee and ankle joint kinematics relative to the health education group across the 18-month intervention. Moreover, the weight training group exhibited significantly greater ankle plantar flexion velocity. Analysis of the ground reaction forces indicated that the aerobic group exhibited significantly greater force relative to the health education group. Finally, both exercise groups exhibited significantly less knee pain than the health education group. The results suggest that long-term aerobic walking and, to a lesser extent, weight training regimens improve walking mechanics in older adults with knee osteoarthritis. These improvements in gait are associated with a reduction in knee pain during activities of daily living.

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College Students’ Motivation Toward Weight Training: An Application of Expectancy-Value Model

Zan Gao and Ping Xiang

Guided by an expectancy-value model of achievement choice (Eccles et al., 1983; Wigfield & Eccles, 2000), the relationships among expectancy-related beliefs, subjective task values (importance, interest, and usefulness), and achievement outcomes (intention, engagement, and performance) were examined in a college-level beginning weight training class. A total of 156 students (73 males, 83 females) completed questionnaires assessing their expectancy-related beliefs, subjective task values, and intention for future participation. Their engagement was measured via self-recorded workout log entries in class, and their performance was determined by two skill tests. Results of the study supported the application of the expectancy-value model in the context of a college weight training class. Importance and interest were significant predictors of intention and engagement, whereas expectancy-related beliefs emerged as the only predictor of performance. Males reported higher scores on expectancy-related beliefs and performed better than females.

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The Effect of Oral Vanadyl Sulfate on Body Composition and Performance in Weight-Training Athletes

J. Paul Fawcett, Stephen J. Farquhar, Robert J. Walker, Thearoth Thou, Graham Lowe, and Ailsa Goulding

The effects of oral vanadyl sulfáte (VOSO4) (0.5 mg/kg/day) on anthropometry, body composition, and Performance were investigated in a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving weight-training volunteers. Performance was assessed in the treatment (VS) and placebo (P) groups using 1 and 10 repetitions maximum (RM) for the bench press and leg extension. Thirty-one subjects completed the trial, with 2 VS subjects withdrawing because of apparent side effects. There were no significant treatment effects for anthropo-metric parameters and body composition during the trial. Both groups had significant improvements in performance but the only significant effect of treatment was a Treatment × Time interaction in the 1 RM leg extension (p=.002), which could have arisen because the VS group had a lower performance at baseline in this test. It was concluded that oral vanadyl sulfáte was ineffective in changing body composition in weight-training athletes, and any modest performance-enhancing effect requires further investigation.

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The Effects of Intermittent Liquid Meal Feeding on Selected Hormones and Substrates during Intense Weight Training

Thomas D. Fahey, Karen Hoffman, William Colvin, and Gregory Lauten

This study examined the effects of feeding a liquid meal during weight training on selected hormones and substrates. Ten male subjects were given a meal (MW) or nonnutritive placebo (W) before and intermittently during a 2-hr weight training session, and a meal before and intermittently during 2 hours of rest (M). Serum insulin increased from 12.2 ± 1.2 and 11.2 ± 1.3 before feeding to 37.2 ± 4.8 and 45.0 ± 5.0 mU · ml 1 during exercise in MW and M, respectively, and remained elevated for 120 min. Insulin remained at resting levels in W throughout the experiment. Glucose increased from 5.20 ± 0.16 and 4.82 ± 0.20 before feeding to 6.23 ± 0.30 and 6.0 ±0.36 mmol 1−1 at the beginning of exercise in MW and M. Glucose declined during the first 15 min of exercise in MW and M but remained at or above resting levels for 120 min in MW. Lactate increased above 5.9 mmol · I 1 in W and MW during exercise. Glucagon remained unchanged in all groups. Perceived exertion during exercise was 8.5±0.16 for MW and 8.3±0.18 for W. Feeding a liquid meal before and during weight training exercise can increase serum insulin and maintain blood glucose for a prolonged period.

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Muscle Strength and Qualitative Myosin Heavy Chain Isoform mRNA Expression in the Elderly after Moderate- and High-Intensity Weight Training

Darryn S. Willoughby and Stephen C. Pelsue

This study was an attempt to determine the effects of 12 weeks of moderate-intensity (MIEX) and high-intensity (HIEX) weight training on the muscular strength and qualitative myosin heavy chain (MHO isoform mRNA expression in 18 elderly men. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a control group (Con) or training groups of either MIEX or HIEX. Training sessions occurred 3 days/week and involved three sets of 15-20 repetitions at 60%-65% 1 -RM for MIEX and three sets of 8-10 repetitions at 75%-80% 1 -RM for HIEX. Both upper and lower body strength increased for Con and increased significantly for MIEX and HIEX. No changes in MHC mRNA isoform expression were observed for Con: however, there were increases in Type I MHC and decreases in Type IIx MHC mRNA expression for MIEX and increases in Type I, Ila, and IIx MHC mRNA expression for HIEX. The findings suggest that both moderate- and high-intensity weight training increases muscle strength and the expression of Type I MHC mRNA isoform. while high-intensity weight training also increases the mRNA expression of Type Ila and IIx isoforms in previously inactive elderly men.

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Bone Mineral Density Responses to High-Intensity Strength Training in Active Older Women

Jeanne F. Nichols, Karen P. Nelson, Katrina K. Peterson, and David J. Sartoris

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of high-intensity strength training on bone mineral density (BMD) of 34 non-estrogen-repleted, active women over 60 years of age. The study was designed as a randomized, nonblinded trial in which subjects were stratified into rank-ordered pairs by level of physical activity, then randomly assigned into either a weight training (WT) or a control (CON) group. BMD of the spine (L2–L4), hip, and total body was assessed at 0, 6, and 12 months by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Group-by-time repeated-measures ANOVA demonstrated no effect of weight training on BMD, despite marked gains in muscular strength for all exercises. The high-intensity weight training utilized in this study did not induce positive changes in BMD of the hip and spine of previously active, non-estrogen-repleted older women. However, the protocol was safe, enjoyable, and highly effective in increasing muscular strength.

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The Application of Postactivation Potentiation to Elite Sport

David Docherty and Matthew J. Hodgson

Recently there has been considerable interest and research into the functional significance of postactivation potentiation (PAP) on sport performance. The interest has evolved around the potential for enhancing acute performance or the long-term training effect, typically in the form of complex training. Complex training usually involves performing a weight-training exercise with high loads before executing a plyometric exercise with similar biomechanical demands. Despite a considerable amount of research in the past 10 years it would seem there is still much research to be done to fully determine whether PAP has a functional role and, if so, how to best exploit it. It is clear from the research that there are many factors that need to be considered when attempting to apply PAP to an athlete. It is possible that a well-conceived sport-specific warm-up might be as or more effective in enhancing acute performance and easier to apply in a practical setting. In addition, despite its current popularity, there has not been 1 study that has effectively examined the efficacy of complex training and whether it has any advantage over other forms of training that combine weight training and plyometrics but not in the same training session.

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Diet and Exercise Strategies of a World-Class Bodybuilder

Melinda M. Manore, Janice Thompson, and Marcy Russo

This study presents the diet and exercise strategies of a world-class bodybuilder during an 8-week precompetition period. Weighed food records were kept daily, and body fat, resting metabolic rate (RMR), VO 2 max , blood lipids, and liver enzymes were measured. Two hrs of aerobic exercise and 3 hrs of weight training were done daily 6 daystweek. Mean energy intake was 4,952 kcallday (54 kcallkg) and included 1,278 kcallday from mediumchain triglycerides (MCT). Diet without MCT provided 76% of energy from carbohydrate, 19% from protein (1.9 g proteiag), and 5% from fat. Micronutrients were consumed at ≥ 100% of the RDA, except for zinc and calcium, without supplementation. Mean RMR was 2,098 kcallday and represented 43% of energy intake. VO 2 max was 53−1.min−1. Underwater weighing showed that body fat decreased from 9% to 7%. Blood lipids were normal, but two liver enzymes were elevated (alanine and aspartate aminotransferase). This world-class bodybuilder achieved body fat goals by following a nutrient dense, high energy, high carbohydrate diet and an exercise program that emphasized both aerobic and anaerobic metabolism.