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Improvement of Kinetic, Kinematic, and Qualitative Performance Variables of the Power Clean With the Hook Grip

Dustin J. Oranchuk, Eric J. Drinkwater, Riki S. Lindsay, Eric R. Helms, Eric T. Harbour, and Adam G. Storey

Optimizing muscle power and rapid force production is important for peak performance in several sports. 1 , 2 Weightlifting movements such as the power clean (PC) closely mirror many unloaded athletic movements as they are ballistic and biomechanically similar to jumping, sprinting, and change of

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Peak Age and Performance Progression in World-Class Weightlifting and Powerlifting Athletes

Paul A. Solberg, Will G. Hopkins, Gøran Paulsen, and Thomas A. Haugen

. Weightlifting and powerlifting are particularly suitable sports to investigate age-related changes in these physiological capabilities. Funato et al 18 observed clear performance differences between weight-matched elite senior (25 [1] y) and college (21 [0.3] y) weightlifters despite no differences in fat

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Comparison of 1-Repetition-Maximum Performance Across 3 Weightlifting Overhead Pressing Exercises and Sport Groups

Marcos A. Soriano, Amador García-Ramos, Antonio Torres-González, Joaquín Castillo-Palencia, Pedro J. Marín, Pilar Sainz de Baranda, and Paul Comfort

back squat variations with participants lifting significantly higher loads during the back squat compared with the front squat ( P  < .05). Researchers have suggested potential benefits for implementing overhead pressing derivatives as training tools not only to improve weightlifting performance but

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The Effect of Resistance Exercise on the Thermic Effect of Food

Charlene M. Denzer and John C. Young


The thermic effect of food (TEF) is the increment in energy expenditure above resting metabolic rate associated with the cost of absorption and processing of food for storage. Previous studies have shown that TEF is enhanced by aerobic endurance exercise of sufficient duration and intensity. The purpose of this study was to determine if a similar effect occurs with a single bout of resistance exercise (weightlifting).


VO2 was measured in 9 healthy volunteers (3 males and 6 females) for 2 hours after ingestion of a 2760 kJ (660 kcal) carbohydrate meal with and without prior completion of a resistance training regimen (2 sets of 10 repetitions of 10 different exercises).


The meal caused an immediate and persistent thermic effect in both the control and the exercise trial. Mean oxygen consumption over baseline increased 20% in the control trial and 34% in the exercise trial. TEF calculated from VO2 and RER (total area under the response curve above baseline) was 73% greater in the exercise trial compared with the control trial (159 ± 18 vs. 92 ± 14 KJ/2 hrs, p < .02).


These results indicate that TEF in response to a carbohydrate meal is enhanced following a single bout of resistance exercise.

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Successful Physical Activity Maintainers: Strategies and Characteristics of Young African American Women

Chloe S. Jones, Cristina S. Barroso, Lindsey A. Miossi, Eugene C. Fitzhugh, and Lyndsey M. Hornbuckle

interviews: (a) early-life contributors to LTPA participation; (b) characteristics of current LTPA: variety in workouts and weightlifting preference; (c) initiating LTPA participation: motivators to initiate LTPA and strategies to initiate LTPA; and (d) maintaining LTPA participation: factors influencing

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Relationships Between Internal Training Load in a Taper With Elite Weightlifting Performance Calculated Using Different Moving Average Methods

Joseph O.C. Coyne, Robert U. Newton, and G. Gregory Haff

recommended that both these constructs be used to assess the training process. 6 , 7 There are a number of external TL measures that are common in weightlifting, for example, volume load. 8 , 9 The use of internal TL measures such as sessional ratings of perceived exertion (sRPE) in weightlifting remains

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Effects of Carbohydrate Loading and Weight-lifting on Muscle Girth

Thomas W. Balon, Jeffrey F. Horowitz, and Karen M. Fitzsimmons

Bodybuilders have used different carbohydrate loading regimens in conjunction with resistance exercise prior to competition in the belief that this would result in increased muscle size. To investigate this possibility, muscle girth measurements were obtained from nine weight-trained males before and after a control (standard isocaloric diet) and an experimental trial (carbohydrate loading). The latter regimen consisted of 3 days of intense weight-lifting while the subjects ingested a diet of 10% carbohydrate (CHO), 57% fat (F), and 33% protein (P), followed by 3 days of light weight-lifting and a day of rest while ingesting a diet of 80% CHO, 5% F, and 15% P. The control trial consisted of an identical weight-lifting regimen while subjects ingested an isocaloric (45 kcal/kg BWIday) diet. Body weight and girths (forearm, upper arm, chest, thigh, waist, and calf) were obtained before and after each trial in a relaxed and flexed state. The results indicated that an exercise/carbohydrate loading regimen had no significant effect on muscle girth as compared to the control trial. It is concluded that CHO loading has no additional advantage to enhancing muscle girth in bodybuilders over weight-lifting alone.

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Comparisons Between Twice-Daily and Once-Daily Training Sessions in Male Weight Lifters

Michael J. Hartman, Brandon Clark, Debra A. Bemben, J. Lon Kilgore, and Michael G. Bemben


Many elite athletes use increased daily training frequencies as a means to increase training load without substantial published literature to support this practice.


To compare the physiological responses to twice- and once-daily training sessions with similar training volumes.


Ten nationally competitive male weightlifters (age 20.5 ± 1.2 y, body mass 92.9 ± 23.6 kg, training history 5.5 ± 1.5 y) were matched on body mass and training experience, then randomly assigned to train either once or twice daily for 3 wk. Isometric knee-extension strength (ISO), muscle cross-sectional area, vertical-jump peak power, resting hormone concentrations, neuromuscular activation (EMG), and weightlifting performance were obtained before and after the experimental training period.


All dependent measures before the training intervention were similar for both groups. A 2-way repeated-measures ANOVA did not reveal any significant main effects (group or trial) or interaction effects (group × trial) for any of the dependent variables. There were also no significant group differences when parameters were expressed as percentage change, but the twice-daily training group had a greater percentage change in ISO (+5.1% vs +3.2%), EMG (+20.3% vs +9.1%), testosterone (+10.5% vs +6.4%), and testosterone:cortisol ratio (−10.5% vs +1.3%) than did the once-daily training group.


There were no additional benefits from increased daily training frequency in national-level male weightlifters, but the increase in ISO and EMG activity for the twice-daily group might provide some rationale for dividing training load in an attempt to reduce the risk of overtraining.

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Force-Time–Curve Comparison Between Weight-Lifting Derivatives

Timothy J. Suchomel and Christopher J. Sole

The force-production characteristics of 3 weight-lifting derivatives were examined by comparing the force–time curves of each exercise. Sixteen resistance-trained men performed repetitions of the hang power clean (HPC), jump shrug (JS), and hang high pull (HHP) on a force platform at several relative loads. Relative peak force (PFRel), relative impulse (IMPRel), peak rate of force development (PRFD), and time-normalized force–time curves of each exercise were compared. The JS produced greater PFRel than the HPC (P < .001, d = 1.38) and HHP (P < .001, d = 1.14), while there was no difference between the HPC and HHP (P = .338, d = 0.26). Similarly, the JS produced greater IMPRel than the HPC (P < .001, d = 0.52) and HHP (P = .019, d = 0.36). The HHP also produced greater IMPRel than the HPC (P = .040, d = 0.18). Finally, the JS produced greater PRFD than the HPC (P < .001, d = 0.73) and HHP (P = .001, d = 0.47), while there was no difference between the HPC and HHP (P = .192, d = 0.22). The HPC, JS, and HHP force–time profiles were similar during the first 75–80% of the movement; however, the JS produced markedly different force–time characteristics in the final 20–25% of the movement. The JS produced superior force-production characteristics, namely PFRel, IMPRel, and PRFD, as well as a unique force–time profile, compared with the HPC and HHP across several loads.

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Validity of the Open Barbell and Tendo Weightlifting Analyzer Systems Versus the Optotrak Certus 3D Motion-Capture System for Barbell Velocity

Jacob A. Goldsmith, Cameron Trepeck, Jessica L. Halle, Kristin M. Mendez, Alex Klemp, Daniel M. Cooke, Michael H. Haischer, Ryan K. Byrnes, Robert F. Zoeller, Michael Whitehurst, and Michael C. Zourdos

position transducers (LPTs) and wearable velocity calculators have been developed, 1 , 2 which have a lower cost (Tendo Weightlifting Analyzer System [TWAS], ∼$1500; GymAware, ∼$2000) than criterion measurement systems: force platforms and 3-dimensional motion capture ($10,000–40,000). In terms of