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Jennifer Ostrowski, Angelina Purchio, Maria Beck, JoLynn Leisinger, Mackenzie Tucker and Sarah Hurst

-compression modalities with intermittent compression are used during this immediate care phase (eg, Game Ready, PowerPlay). While Game Ready uses cooled water continuously cycled through a bladder contained within anatomically designed sleeves, the PowerPlay uses either a frozen gel pack or bags of wetted ice (1500-mL

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Eric J. Hunter, Jennifer Ostrowski, Matthew Donahue, Caitlyn Crowley and Valerie Herzog


Many researchers have investigated the effectiveness of different cryotherapy agents at decreasing intramuscular tissue temperatures. However, no one has looked at the effectiveness of adding salt to an ice bag.


To compare the cooling effectiveness of different ice bags (wetted, salted cubed, and salted crushed) on cutaneous and intramuscular temperatures.


Repeated-measures counterbalanced design.


University research laboratory.


24 healthy participants (13 men, 11 women; age 22.46 ± 2.33 y, height 173.25 ± 9.78 cm, mass 74.51 ± 17.32 kg, subcutaneous thickness 0.63 ± 0.27 cm) with no lower-leg injuries, vascular diseases, sensitivity to cold, compromised circulation, or chronic use of NSAIDs.


Ice bags made of wetted ice (2000 mL ice and 300 mL water), salted cubed ice (intervention A; 2000 mL of cubed ice and 1/2 tablespoon of salt), and salted crushed ice (intervention B; 2000 mL of crushed ice and 1/2 tablespoon of salt) were applied to the posterior gastrocnemius for 30 min. Each participant received all conditions with at least 4 d between treatments.

Main Outcome Measure:

Cutaneous and intramuscular (2 cm plus adipose thickness) temperatures of nondominant gastrocnemius were measured during a 10-min baseline period, a 30-min treatment period, and a 45-min rewarming period.


Differences from baseline were observed for all treatments. The wetted-ice and salted-cubed-ice bags produced significantly lower intramuscular temperatures than the salted-crushed-ice bag. Wetted-ice bags produced the greatest temperature change for cutaneous tissues.


Wetted- and salted-cubed-ice bags were equally effective at decreasing intramuscular temperature at 2 cm subadipose. Clinical practicality may favor salted-ice bags over wetted-ice bags.

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Jill Alexander and David Rhodes

therefore cooling efficiency. 10 Efficient in phase change modalities such as crushed or wetted ice noted numerously throughout cryotherapy literature as the most efficient for inducing physiological changes. 12 – 14 The known effects of cryotherapy on performance and reinjury/further injury risk lack

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Jennifer Ostrowski, Angelina Purchio, Maria Beck and JoLynn Leisinger

formation, 5 and decrease pain. 8 , 14 Previous research has found that wetted ice bags (IBs) and salted IBs are able to produce greater intramuscular temperature decreases than traditional cubed and crushed IBs. 15 , 16 Studies examining cooling magnitude of cryotherapy modalities often measure skin

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Riana R. Pryor, Douglas J. Casa, Susan W. Yeargin and Zachary Y. Kerr

/670) .008  Ice bags or ice cooler available 98.6 (1,122/1,138) 97.9 (458/468) 99.1 (664/670) .080 If suspected EHI, the AT would:  Take body temperature 76.4 (646/845) 76.1 (261/343) 76.7 (385/502) .840  Immerse athlete in ice water 80.9 (700/865) 76.1 (267/351) 84.2 (433/514) .003  Use wet ice towels 92

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Kayla E. Boehm and Kevin C. Miller

reached 38.8°C. No noted specifications on water circulation. – Subjects were immersed in a seated position. If arms or legs were not completely submersed, then wet ice towels were used to cover the arms, legs, neck, and head. All subjects were immersed in a circulated water bath (2°C) until T rec

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Tyler A. Beauregard, Jade Vaile, Lucas Whitney, Mark Merrick and Valerie Moody

Ther . 1973 ; 53 ( 12 ): 1284 – 1288 . PubMed ID: 4759710 doi: 10.1093/ptj/53.12.1284 4759710 17. Belitsky RB , Odam SJ , Hubley-Kozey C . Evaluation of the effectiveness of wet ice, dry ice, and cryogen packs in reducing skin temperature . Phys Ther . 1987 ; 67 ( 7 ): 1080 – 1084

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Cordial M. Gillette and Mark A. Merrick

, Baker RJ . Comparisons of cubed ice, crushed ice, and wetted ice on intramuscular and surface temperature changes . J Athl Train . 2009 ; 44 ( 2 ): 136 – 141 . PubMed ID: 19295957 doi:10.4085/1062-6050-44.2.136 19295957 10.4085/1062-6050-44.2.136 24. Merrick MA , Jutte LS , Smith ME

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Katie J. Lyman, Michael McCrone, Thomas A. Hanson, Christopher D. Mellinger and Kara Gange

, Baker RJ . Comparisons of cubed ice, crushed ice, and wetted ice on intramuscular and surface temperature changes . J Athl Train . 2009 ; 44 ( 2 ): 136 – 141 . PubMed ID: 19295957 doi:10.4085/1062-6050-44.2.136 10.4085/1062-6050-44.2.136 19295957 34. Burkhauser RV , Cawley J , Beyond BMI