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Mário A.M. Simim, Marco Túlio de Mello, Bruno V.C. Silva, Dayane F. Rodrigues, João Paulo P. Rosa, Bruno Pena Couto, and Andressa da Silva

The performance of elite athletes in adapted sports has improved significantly in recent decades ( Perret, 2017 ), mainly because of improvements in equipment, such as prostheses and wheelchairs ( Cooper & De Luigi, 2014 ; Laferrier et al., 2012 ; Perret, 2017 ). Wheelchair sports are

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Rienk M.A. van der Slikke, Daan J.J. Bregman, Monique A.M. Berger, Annemarie M.H. de Witte, and Dirk-Jan (H.) E.J. Veeger

orientation monitoring . Meas Sci Technol . 2011 ; 22 ( 10 ): 105801 . doi:10.1088/0957-0233/22/10/105801 10.1088/0957-0233/22/10/105801 14. Fuss FK . Speed measurements in wheelchair sports—theory and application . Sports Technol . 2012 ; 5 ( 1–2 ): 29 – 42 . doi:10.1080/19346182.2012.754895 10

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Colin Higgs

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Frank M. Brasile

For decades, the integration of handicapped children and adults into the mainstream of society has been promoted as a valuable and necessary concept. With the advent of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and Public Law 94-142, the trend of mainstreaming individuals with handicaps into the “normal” world has led to the termination of many special schools and special recreation programs. This manuscript explores the potential of a new technique for integrating the disabled and the nondisabled. It is hypothesized that such integration will lead to a deeper commitment to, as well as a keener insight into, the plight of the disabled individual in regard to the attitudinal and architectural barriers that are still so prevalent in our society today. It is time to truly place more of a focus upon the ability of the participant, not the disability.

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Barry S. Mason, James M. Rhodes, and Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey

The purpose of the current study was to determine the validity and reliability of an inertial sensor for assessing speed specific to athletes competing in the wheelchair court sports (basketball, rugby, and tennis). A wireless inertial sensor was attached to the axle of a sports wheelchair. Over two separate sessions, the sensor was tested across a range of treadmill speeds reflective of the court sports (1.0 to 6.0 m/s). At each test speed, ten 10-second trials were recorded and were compared with the treadmill (criterion). A further session explored the dynamic validity and reliability of the sensor during a sprinting task on a wheelchair ergometer compared with high-speed video (criterion). During session one, the sensor marginally overestimated speed, whereas during session two these speeds were underestimated slightly. However, systematic bias and absolute random errors never exceeded 0.058 m/s and 0.086 m/s, respectively, across both sessions. The sensor was also shown to be a reliable device with coefficients of variation (% CV) never exceeding 0.9 at any speed. During maximal sprinting, the sensor also provided a valid representation of the peak speeds reached (1.6% CV). Slight random errors in timing led to larger random errors in the detection of deceleration values. The results of this investigation have demonstrated that an inertial sensor developed for sports wheelchair applications provided a valid and reliable assessment of the speeds typically experienced by wheelchair athletes. As such, this device will be a valuable monitoring tool for assessing aspects of linear wheelchair performance.

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Jeffrey J. Martin, Laurie A. Malone, and James C. Hilyer

Research on elite female athletes with disabilities is extremely rare. Therefore, using the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (Cattell, Cattell, & Cattell, 1993) and Profile of Mood States (Droppleman, Lorr, & McNair, 1992), we examined differences between the top 12 athletes comprising the gold medal winning 2004 USA women’s Paralympic basketball team and 13 athletes attending the selection camp who did not make the team. Multivariate analysis of variance with follow-up tests revealed that athletes who made the Paralympic team scored higher on tough-mindedness (M = 5.7 vs. 4.3) and lower in anxiety (M = 5.6 vs. 7.8). For mood state, the Paralympians scored higher in vigor (M = 19.5 vs. 14.8) and lower in depressed mood (M = 3.9 vs. 6.7) and confusion (M = 5.5 vs. 7.5). The effect sizes were large (e.g., Cohen’s d = 0.91 - 1.69) for all five results.

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Armand Thiboutot, Ralph W. Smith, and Stan Labanowich

Brasile (1990) has proposed a “new perspective” on efforts in the United States to integrate persons without disabilities in activities currently limited exclusively to those with disabilities (i.e., wheelchair sports). It is contended herein that Brasile’s rationale for “reverse integration” is based upon faulty logic; moreover, it violates fundamental concepts that form the foundation of the wheelchair sports movement in the U.S. Not only would it reduce competitive opportunities for persons with disabilities, but reverse integration reflects an outdated perspective that wheelchair sports is primarily a form of rehabilitation rather than sports competition. Finally, the fundamental issue in this debate is identified: who will ultimately decide who is or is not eligible for participation in wheelchair sports in the U.S.? In 1987 the players (i.e., team delegates) within the National Wheelchair Basketball Association voted overwhelmingly against the inclusion of players without disabilities. The athletes themselves should continue to have control of wheelchair sports.

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Rodrigo Rodrigues Gomes Costa, Jefferson Rodrigues Dorneles, Guilherme Henrique Lopes, José Irineu Gorla, and Frederico Ribeiro Neto

Monitoring training loads and the consequent fatigue responses is usually a result of personal trainers’ experiences and an adaptation of the methods used in sports for people without disabilities. 1 Due to the specific characteristics of the wheelchair sports modalities, practical evaluations for

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Christina Evaggelinou and Dimitris Grekinis

Disability sport provides a setting in which attributes, practices, and beliefs of spectators can be examined. The Spectator Questionnaire (SQ) was used to collect data on 114 of the spectators attending the 1993 International Stoke Mandeville Wheelchair Games (ISMWG). Most spectators (96%) were not athletes in the games, and only 24% were relatives of athletes with disabilities. Spectators were attending the games primarily to encourage athletes in their efforts and to learn more about wheelchair sports. Spectators indicated they would prioritize their time to view wheelchair sports on television. Studying spectators at carefully organized wheelchair sport events may provide useful information that can be used in other settings, such as in the development and implementation of programs to facilitate the inclusion of people with disabilities in mainstreamed environments.

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Kenneth J. Richter, Carol Adams-Mushett, Michael S. Ferrara, and B. Cairbre McCann

Classification is intended to provide fair competition for athletes. Each disability group has developed different methods and techniques of classification to ensure fair competition. However, the 1992 Paralympics will use integrated classification for swimmers from the International Sports Organization for the Disabled (ISOD), the International Stoke Mandeville Wheelchair Sports Federation (ISMWSF), and the Cerebral Palsy International Sports and Recreation Association (CP-ISRA). The integrated swimming classification is said to be based on the research of Counsilman. The developers of the integrated swimming classification system have assigned point values for body parts involved in swimming propulsion. Counsilman (1977) refutes the assignment of points to swimming propulsion since it is unscientific and based on subjective evaluation. Further, the integrated swimming classification has yet to undergo extensive field testing to determine its reliability and validity. Additionally there are physiological, sports technical, and statistical problems with the integrated system.