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Harpa Helgadottir, Eythor Kristjansson, Sarah Mottram, Andrew Karduna and Halldor Jonsson Jr.

Clinical theory suggests that altered alignment of the shoulder girdle has the potential to create or sustain symptomatic mechanical dysfunction in the cervical and thoracic spine. The alignment of the shoulder girdle is described by two clavicle rotations, i.e, elevation and retraction, and by three scapular rotations, i.e., upward rotation, internal rotation, and anterior tilt. Elevation and retraction have until now been assessed only in patients with neck pain. The aim of the study was to determine whether there is a pattern of altered alignment of the shoulder girdle and the cervical and thoracic spine in patients with neck pain. A three-dimensional device measured clavicle and scapular orientation, and cervical and thoracic alignment in patients with insidious onset neck pain (IONP) and whiplash-associated disorder (WAD). An asymptomatic control group was selected for baseline measurements. The symptomatic groups revealed a significantly reduced clavicle retraction and scapular upward rotation as well as decreased cranial angle. A difference was found between the symptomatic groups on the left side, whereas the WAD group revealed an increased scapular anterior tilt and the IONP group a decreased clavicle elevation. These changes may be an important mechanism for maintenance and recurrence or exacerbation of symptoms in patients with neck pain.

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Hidde P. van der Ploeg, Kitty R.M. Streppel, Allard J. van der Beek, Luc H.V. van der Woude, Miriam Vollenbroek-Hutten and Willem van Mechelen


The objective was to determine the test-retest reliability and criterion validity of the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (PASIPD).


Forty-five non-wheelchair dependent subjects were recruited from three Dutch rehabilitation centers. Subjects’ diagnoses were: stroke, spinal cord injury, whiplash, and neurological-, orthopedic- or back disorders. The PASIPD is a 7-d recall physical activity questionnaire that was completed twice, 1 wk apart. During this week, physical activity was also measured with an Actigraph accelerometer.


The test-retest reliability Spearman correlation of the PASIPD was 0.77. The criterion validity Spearman correlation was 0.30 when compared to the accelerometer.


The PASIPD had test-retest reliability and criterion validity that is comparable to well established self-report physical activity questionnaires from the general population.

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Chadwick Debison-Larabie, Bernadette A. Murphy and Michael W.R. Holmes

head perturbations has focused on flexion/extension head movements, 6 – 9 with some seated whiplash protocols investigating lateral perturbations. 10 , 11 Perturbations that cause lateral bend and rotational head motion are required to fully comprehend potential sex differences in neuromuscular

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Paul A. Ullucci, Frank Tudini and Matthew F. Moran

Med . 2015 ; 25 ( 3 ): 237 – 242 . PubMed ID: 25051194 doi:10.1097/JSM.0000000000000128 25051194 10.1097/JSM.0000000000000128 4. Endo K , Ichimaru K , Komagata M , Yamamoto K . Cervical vertigo and dizziness after whiplash injury . Eur Spine J . 2006 ; 15 ( 6 ): 886 – 890 . PubMed ID

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Alireza Derakhshani, Amir Letafatkar and Zohre Khosrokiani

, active range of cervical motion, and oculomotor function in patients with whiplash injury . Arch Phys Med Rehabil . 1998 ; 79 : 1089 – 1094 . PubMed ID: 9749689 doi:10.1016/S0003-9993(98)90176-9 10.1016/S0003-9993(98)90176-9 9749689 16. Treleaven J , Jull G , Sterling M . Dizziness and

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Taha Ibrahim Yildiz, Elif Turgut and Irem Duzgun

in patients with insidious onset neck pain and whiplash-associated disorder . J Appl Biomech . 2011 ; 27 ( 3 ): 181 – 191 . PubMed ID: 21844606 doi:10.1123/jab.27.3.181 10.1123/jab.27.3.181 21844606 10. Helgadottir H , Kristjansson E , Mottram S , Karduna A , Jonsson H Jr . Altered

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Anna Lina Rahlf, Klaus-Michael Braumann and Astrid Zech

uncertainty regarding the clinical value. Significant effects were found for pain perception and joint range of motion (ROM) in patients with acute whiplash 9 and shoulder impingement 10 . Other studies reported tendencies for an improved proprioception 11 – 17 and lymph flow 18 , 19 as well as changes in

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Matt Greig, Hannah Emmerson and John McCreadie

skull investigating accelerations associated with the whiplash mechanism in rugby tackling events. 12 Similarly, C7 and lumbar accelerations have been compared in fast bowling, 13 with unit location dictated by epidemiological data and a prevalence of lumbar spine injuries. In relation to ankle sprain

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Yaheli Bet-Or, Wolbert van den Hoorn, Venerina Johnston and Shaun O’Leary

patients with insidious onset neck pain and whiplash-associated disorder . J Appl Biomech . 2011 ; 27 ( 3 ): 181 – 191 . PubMed doi:10.1123/jab.27.3.181 10.1123/jab.27.3.181 21844606

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Marc-Olivier St-Aubin, Philippe Chalaye, François-Pierre Counil and Sylvie Lafrenaye

f880 10.1097/ALN.0b013e318210f880 43. Stewart MJ , Maher CG , Refshauge KM , Herbert RD , Bogduk N , Nicholas M . Randomized controlled trial of exercise for chronic whiplash-associated disorders . Pain . 2007 ; 128 ( 1–2 ): 59 – 68 . PubMed ID: 17029788 doi:10.1016/j.pain.2006