National Academy of Kinesiology ( 2019 ) is committed to encouraging and promoting the study of educational applications related to human movement and PA (nationalacademyofkinesiology.org). This paper focuses on the implementation of whole-school programming aimed at increasing children’s PA during the
Shannon C. Mulhearn, Pamela Hodges Kulinna, and Collin Webster
Kent A. Lorenz, Hans van der Mars, Pamela Hodges Kulinna, Barbara E. Ainsworth, and Melbourne F. Hovell
addition, statistical analyses were performed with general linear models in SAS 9.3 for Windows (SAS Institute Inc, Cary, NC) to account for unique influences of environmental and behavioral contextual variables on MVPA levels for the whole school and specific activity areas. All hypothesis tests were
School is an environment where children and adolescents spend most of their time during the day. The environment is characterized by a sedentary culture necessary for academic learning. In this article, I present research evidence showing the effects of four physical activity opportunities in this environment: school athletics, recess, classroom physical activity breaks, and physical education. Based on an analysis of research evidence on the four opportunities, I propose that the efforts to promote the opportunities should be coordinated into a concerted action to integrate a physical activity-friendly culture in the sedentary environment. Using an example of China's whole-school physical activity promotion strategy, I identify four areas for us to continue to work on: legislature-based policies, physical education as core content, creation and maintenance of physical activity traditions in schools, and integration of physical activity-friendly culture into the sedentary school environment.
Massimiliano Pau, Federica Corona, Bruno Leban, Simona Piredda, Maria Marcella Vacca, and Gioia Mura
Considering the relevant amount of time spent by children at school, it is essential to ensure that suitable levels of physical activity (PA) are guaranteed. This study aimed to assess possible changes induced in the amount and type of PA performed following the 2 schedules in Italian primary schools, namely regular and full time (30–40 h/week respectively).
A sample of 169 children wore a triaxial accelerometer 24h/day for 7 consecutive days. Raw data were processed to calculate the number of steps, amount and intensity of the PA performed in morning, afternoon and evening time slots.
During weekday afternoon times (1:30 to 4:30 PM), children attending the full-time schedule spent significantly less time in sedentary behavior with respect to those who attend the regular time (54.7% vs. 60.0%, P < .001) and more time in moderate-to-vigorous activity (18.0% vs. 15.0%, P = .004). No differences between morning and evening times were found.
The structure of the full time schedule, which includes a second recess, promotes higher and more intense levels of PA during the afternoon. Such information represent a useful input in planning differential PA activities for children attending the regular time to achieve similar PA levels for the whole school population.
Nicole K. Nathan, Rachel L. Sutherland, Kirsty Hope, Nicole J. McCarthy, Matthew Pettett, Ben Elton, Rebecca Jackson, Stewart G. Trost, Christophe Lecathelinais, Kathryn Reilly, John H. Wiggers, Alix Hall, Karen Gillham, Vanessa Herrmann, and Luke Wolfenden
the whole school day (ie, 9 AM to 3 PM), except for water-based activities. Two research assistants visited each class and demonstrated to students and teachers how to fit the accelerometer to the wrist of their nondominant hand. Teachers distributed and collected the accelerometers each day. Children
Murray F. Mitchell, Hal A. Lawson, Hans van der Mars, and Phillip Ward
Century conditions. Third, we believe that the field needs to embrace the Whole School, Whole Community, and Whole Child model ( Centers for Disease Control, 2021 ), not because it is the only way to proceed, but because it represents a potentiality of how students might be best served in their school and
Michael A. Hemphill, Emily M. Janke, Santos Flores, and Barrie Gordon
Figure 1 ). Level 1 focuses on a variety of social and emotional learning strategies to build relationships across the whole school context. This can include relational activities such as listening circles ( Reistenberg, 2012 ) or teachers’ use of affective statements ( Wachtel, 2016 ). Level 2 involves
Phillip Ward, Hans van der Mars, Murray F. Mitchell, and Hal A. Lawson
recommend that our curriculums create stronger connections with the community in which schools exist. The Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child (WSCC) model is the first of its kind, developed by the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development ( n.d. ) and the Centers for Disease Control and
Phillip Ward, Murray F. Mitchell, Hal A. Lawson, and Hans van der Mars
-based model to a salutogenic model of health, and (d) including stronger connections with the community in which schools exist using the Whole School Whole Community and Whole Child model ( Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, n.d. ). We will not repeat the case here, but we acknowledge
Lorraine Cale and Jo Harris
, parent e-mail, parent consultations, assemblies, school website; Harris & Cale, 2018 ). This is in fact akin to a whole-school approach to health, which is growing in popularity and increasingly being advocated within and beyond the United Kingdom ( All-Party Commission on Physical Activity, 2014