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Paul E. Yeatts, Ronald Davis, Jun Oh, and Gwang-Yon Hwang

(version 25; IBM Inc., Chicago, IL). Repeated-measures analyses of variance were utilized to examine how game outcome groups (i.e., winners and losers) changed on different affective states. Thus, each analysis could be considered a 2 (time) × 2 (outcome group) repeated-measures analysis of variance. A

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Mark S. Rosentraub and David Swindell

Requests for subsidies from North American cities for the sports facilities used by professional teams continues. While teams elsewhere are expected to use their own revenues and income from lotteries or gaming for their facilities, demands for subsidies are heard. In addition, bids to host national and international competitions are also expected to include public subsidies. This article explores the bargaining games between communities and teams. Its goal is to understand if any city can escape from negotiations and avoid the winner’s curse by reducing or eliminating the need to offer a subsidy. A framework is developed that a larger community can utilize to minimize subsidies. If larger cities correctly understand the dynamic relationship of capital to their internal and external environments, they may well take the initial steps toward deescalating the competition that creates a winner’s curse for the public sector and protect the interests of both small and large cities.

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Montassar Tabben, Daniele Conte, Monoem Haddad, and Karim Chamari

between winners and defeated top-level karate athletes. 5 , 8 Within this context, Chaabene et al 8 have shown that in high-level karate combats, there were no significant differences in any parameters of performance analysis, as well as in physiological responses and perceived exertion between winners

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Martin D. Hoffman


To examine pacing among the most successful runners in the 161-km Western States Endurance Run (WSER) to determine if variations in segmental speed relate to performance, ambient temperature, and calendar year.


Segmental speed and coefficient of variation (CV) in speed were analyzed for 10 race segments of 24 races from 1985 through 2013.


Segmental speeds did not differ between the eventual winners and lead runners and only differed between the 1st and 2nd finishers in the 2nd half of the race. Mean CV in speed was lower (P < .01) for the winners (12%) than for the other top-5 finishers (14–15%). CV in speed was related (r = .80, P = .006) to finish time for the fastest 10 finish times at the WSER. Multiple linearregression analysis revealed mean CV in speed for the top-5 runners to be related to maximum ambient temperature (coefficient =.14, P < .05) and calendar year (coefficient = –.086, P = .034).


Mountain trail running is characterized by wide variations in speed, but the fastest times are achieved when speed fluctuations are limited. This is generally accomplished by the winners remaining relatively close behind the lead runners before taking the lead in the middle half of the race, and then avoiding slowing as much as the other top runners in the latter race stages. Variations in speed increase with high ambient temperatures, and the small decrease in segmental speed variability among top runners across the nearly 30 y of this study suggests that the best runners have improved at pacing this race.

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Philip Davis, Anna Wittekind, and Ralph Beneke

An activity profile of competitive 3 × 2-min novice-level amateur boxing was created based on video footage and postbout blood [La] in 32 male boxers (mean ± SD) age 19.3 ± 1.4 y, body mass 62.6 ± 4.1 kg. Winners landed 18 ± 11 more punches than losers by applying more lead-hand punches in round 1 (34.2 ± 10.9 vs 26.5 ± 9.4), total punches to the head (121.3 ± 10.2 vs 96.0 ± 9.8), and block and counterpunch combinations (2.8 ± 1.1 vs. 0.1 ± 0.2) over all 3 rounds and punching combinations (44.3 ± 6.4 vs 28.8 ± 6.7) in rounds 1 and 3 (all P < .05). In 16 boxers, peak postbout blood [La] was 11.8 ± 1.6 mmol/L irrespective of winning or losing. The results suggest that landing punches requires the ability to maintain a high frequency of attacking movements, in particular the lead-hand straight punch to the head together with punching combinations. Defensive movements must initiate a counterattack. Postbout blood [La] suggests that boxers must be able to tolerate a lactate production rate of 1.8 mmol · L−1 · min−1 and maintain skillful techniques at a sufficient activity rate.

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Ibrahim Ouergui, Philip Davis, Nizar Houcine, Hamza Marzouki, Monia Zaouali, Emerson Franchini, Nabil Gmada, and Ezzedine Bouhlel

The aim of the current study was to investigate the hormonal, physiological, and physical responses of simulated kickboxing competition and evaluate if there was a difference between winners and losers. Twenty athletes of regional and national level participated in the study (mean ± SD age 21.3 ± 2.7 y, height 170.0 ± 5.0 cm). Hormone (cortisol, testosterone, growth hormone), blood lactate [La], and glucose concentrations, as well as upper-body Wingate test and countermovement-jump (CMJ) performances, were measured before and after combats. Heart rate (HR) was measured throughout rounds 1, 2, and 3 and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was taken after each round. All combats were recorded and analyzed to determine the length of different activity phases (high-intensity, low-intensity, and referee pause) and the frequency of techniques. Hormones, glucose, [La], HR, and RPE increased (all P < .001) precombat to postcombat, while a decrease was observed for CMJ, Wingate test performance, body mass (all P < .001), and time of high-intensity activities (P = .005). There was no difference between winners and losers for hormonal, physiological, and physical variables (P > .05). However, winners executed more jab cross, total punches, roundhouse kicks, total kicks, and total attacking techniques (all P < .042) than losers. Kickboxing is an intermittent physically demanding sport that induces changes in the stress-related hormones soliciting the anaerobic lactic system. Training should be oriented to enhance kickboxers’ anaerobic lactic fitness and their ability to strike at a sufficient rate. Further investigation is needed to identify possible differences in tactical and mental abilities that offer some insight into what makes winners winners.

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Robert Weinberg, Robert Neff, and Michael Garza

Since psychology professionals have a moral and ethical responsibility to evaluate the effectiveness of different products and services aimed at improving psychological/physical well-being, development, and/or performance, the purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Winners for Life book (and accompanying Parent Instructor Guide) on improving a variety of psychological factors for at-risk adolescents. Participants were 96 pairs from the Big Brothers/Little Brothers, Big Sisters/Little Sisters program. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: Winners for Life book, Winners for Life book plus instructor guide, or control group. Each group participated in a 12-week intervention program. Results revealed that both Winners for Life book conditions resulted in greater increases in self-esteem, self-perceived goal setting ability, optimism, and hope than the control condition, with the Winners for Life book plus instructor guide condition achieving the greatest improvements.

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William M. Bukowski Jr. and DeWayne Moore

Boys who participated in a series of athletic events as part of their activities at an overnight camp evaluated the importance of possible causes for success and failure in these events. These reasons included the four traditional attributions of ability, effort, luck and task difficulty, and other attributions suggested in previous person-perception studies of the causes of outcomes in achievement-related tasks. The results indicated the following: (a) two of the traditional attributions (luck and difficulty) were perceived as having little importance, (b) success was attributed to internal factors whereas failure was attributed to external factors, (c) the differences between the winners and losers provided little evidence for the presence of a self-serving bias in their evaluations of the items, and (d) the differences between actors and observers were not entirely consistent with the hypothesis that actors attribute outcomes to situational factors and observers attribute the same outcomes to dispositional factors. These results are discussed in light of possible confounds in the experimental design and previous attribution research in sport.

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Melvin M. Mark, Manette Mutrie, David R. Brooks, and Dorothy V. Harris

The achievement oriented world of sport has been a frequent setting for the study of attributions for success and failure. However, it may be inappropriate to generalize from previous research to attributions made in actual, organized, competitive, individual sports because previous studies suffer from one or more of three characteristics which may limit their generalizability to such settings: previous studies have employed novel tasks, staged the competition for research purposes, or examined attribution about team success or failure. The present research was conducted (a) to avoid these limitations to generalizability, (b) to examine whether competitors who differ in experience or ability make different attributions for success and failure, and (c) to employ an attribution measure that does not rely too much on the researchers' interpretation of the subjects' attributions as past techniques have done. Two studies were conducted examining the attributions made by winners and losers in the second round of organized squash (Study 1) and racquetball (Study 2) tournaments. Subjects reported their attributions on the Causal Dimension Scale developed by Russell (1982). Results indicate no difference between players of different experience/ability levels. In addition, winners and losers did not differ in the locus of causality of their attributions, but winners, relative to losers, made more stable and controllable attributions. Implications of these results were discussed first in terms of the debate over self-serving bias in attributions, and second, in terms of the effects of ability and experience on attributions.

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Renate M. Leithäuser

and the money involved is huge. This year, the group phase produced some unexpected results such as the defending champion, Germany’s, defeat against Mexico in the opening match and 2 other former title winners, Argentina and Brazil, playing only a draw in their opening matches against the unfancied