Amelia Carr, Kerry McGawley, Andrew Govus, Erik P. Andersson, Oliver M. Shannon, Stig Mattsson and Anna Melin
.12516 Meyer , N. , Manroe , M. , & Helle , C. ( 2011 ). Nutrition for winter sports . Journal of Sports Sciences, 29 ( Suppl. 1 ), S127 – S136 . PubMed ID: 22150424 doi:10.1080/02640414.2011.574721 10.1080/02640414.2011.574721 Mountjoy , M. , Sungot-Borgen , J. , Burke , L. , Carter
Christian Cook, Danny Holdcroft, Scott Drawer and Liam P. Kilduff
To investigate how different warm-ups influenced subsequent sled-pull sprint performance in Olympic-level bob-skeleton athletes as part of their preparation for the 2010 Winter Olympics.
Three female and 3 male athletes performed 5 different randomized warm-ups of differing intensities, durations, and timing relative to subsequent testing, each 2 days apart, all repeated twice. After warm-ups, testing on a sledpull sprint over 20 m, 3 repeats 3 min apart, took place.
Performance testing showed improvement (P < .001, ES > 1.2) with both increasing intensity of warm-up and closeness of completion to testing, with 20-m sled sprinting being 0.1–0.25 s faster in higher-intensity protocols performed near testing In addition, supplementing the warm-ups by wearing of a light survival coat resulted in further performance improvement (P = .000, ES 1.8).
Changing timing and intensity of warm-up and using an ancillary passive heat-retention device improved sprint performance in Olympic-level bob-skeleton athletes. Subsequent adoption of these on the competitive circuit was associated with a seasonal improvement in push times and was ultimately implemented in the 2010 Winter Olympics.
Mikko Virmavirta and Paavo V. Komi
The Paromed Datalogger® with two insole pressure transducers (16 sensors each, 200 Hz) was applied to study the feasibility of the system for measurement of plantar pressure distribution in ski jumping. The specific aim was to test the sensitivity of the Paromed system to the changes in plantar pressure distribution in ski jumping. Three international level ski jumpers served as subjects during the testing of the system. The Datalogger was fixed to the jumpers’ lower back under the jumping suit. A separate pulse was transmitted to the Datalogger and tape recorder in order to synchronize the logger information with photocell signals indicating the location of the jumper on the inrun. Test procedure showed that this system could be used in ski jumping with only minor disturbance to the jumper. The measured relative pressure increase during the inrun curve matched well the calculated relative centrifugal force (mv2 · r‒1), which thus serves a rough estimation of the system validity. Strong increase in pressure under the big toes compared to the heels (225% and 91%, respectively) with large interindividual differences characterized the take-off. These differences may reflect an unstable anteroposterior balance of a jumper while he tries to create a proper forward rotation for a good flight position.
Miroslav Janura, Lee Cabell, Milan Elfmark and František Vaverka
The athlete’s inrun position affects the outcome for take-off in ski jumping. The purpose of this study was to examine the kinematic parameters between skiers’ adjacent body segments during their first straight path of the inrun. Elite ski jumpers participated in the study at the World Cup events in Innsbruck, Austria, during the years 1992 through 2001. A video image was taken at a right angle to the tracks of the K-110 (meter) jumping hill. Kinematic data were collected from the lower extremities and trunk of the athletes. Findings indicated that jumpers had diminished ankle and knee joint angles and increased trunk and hip angles over the 10 years. In recent years, the best athletes achieved a further length of their jumps, while they experienced slower inrun average velocity. These results are perhaps explained by several possible contributing factors, such as new technique of the jumper’s body kinematics, advancements in equipment technology, and somatotype of the jumpers.
Miriam Klous, Erich Müller and Hermann Schwameder
Limited data exists on knee biomechanics in alpine ski turns despite the high rate of injuries associated with this maneuver. The purpose of the current study was to compare knee joint loading between a carved and a skidded ski turn and between the inner and outer leg. Kinetic data were collected using Kistler mobile force plates. Kinematic data were collected with five synchronized, panning, tilting, and zooming cameras. Inertial properties of the segments were calculated using an extended version of the Yeadon model. Knee joint forces and moments were calculated using inverse dynamics analysis. The obtained results indicate that knee joint loading in carving is not consistently greater than knee joint loading in skidding. In addition, knee joint loading at the outer leg is not always greater than at the inner leg. Differentiation is required between forces and moments, the direction of the forces and moments, and the phase of the turn that is considered. Even though the authors believe that the analyzed turns are representative, results have to be interpreted with caution due to the small sample size.
Matej Supej, Kim Hébert-Losier and Hans-Christer Holmberg
Numerous environmental factors can affect alpine-ski-racing performance, including the steepness of the slope. However, little research has focused on this factor. Accordingly, the authors’ aim was to determine the impact of the steepness of the slope on the biomechanics of World Cup slalom ski racers.
The authors collected 3-dimensional kinematic data during a World Cup race from 10 male slalom skiers throughout turns performed on a relatively flat (19.8°) and steep (25.2°) slope under otherwise similar course conditions.
Kinematic data revealed differences between the 2 slopes regarding the turn radii of the skis and center of gravity, velocity, acceleration, and differential specific mechanical energy (all P < .001). Ground-reaction forces (GRFs) also tended toward differences (P = .06). Examining the time-course behaviors of variables during turn cycles indicated that steeper slopes were associated with slower velocities but greater accelerations during turn initiation, narrower turns with peak GRFs concentrated at the midpoint of steering, more pronounced lateral angulations of the knees and hips at the start of steering that later became less pronounced, and overall slower turns that involved deceleration at completion. Consequently, distinct energy-dissipation-patterns were apparent on the 2 slope inclines, with greater pregate and lesser postgate dissipation on the steeper slope. The steepness of the slope also affected the relationships between mechanical skiing variables.
The findings suggest that specific considerations during training and preparation would benefit the race performance of slalom skiers on courses involving sections of varying steepness.
Kenneth Aggerholm and Kristian Møller Moltke Martiny
To understand the value of a winter sports camp, it is important to consider the experiences of the participants. Phenomenology provides a solid theoretical and methodological framework for investigating experience. It can contribute with an approach to studies and interventions within adapted
At this point in the Olympic cycle, an editorial for a performance-oriented journal like IJSPP leads to the Winter Olympics. Historically, this main winter-sports event started at Chamonix, France, as International Winter Sport Week under the patronage of the International Olympic Committee (IOC
Marianella Herrera-Cuenca, Betty Méndez-Pérez, Maritza Landaeta-Jiménez, Xiomarys Marcano, Evelyn Guilart, Luis Sotillé and Rosalba Romero
Children and Youth with a Disability A+ All the children and youth registered in fifteen states of Venezuela practice organized sport including any of the 21 categories of summer sports and 4 categories of winter sports. 5 As observed in the Table 1 , five indicators had incomplete or no data available