“About Women. By Women. For Us All” is the tagline for ESPN’s Nine for IX documentary series about women in sport. Developed to commemorate the 1972 passage of Title IX, the legislation responsible for the dramatic increase in female sports participation in the United States, ESPN promotes Nine
Gwendolyn M. Weatherford, Betty A. Block and Fredrick L. Wagner
strides have been made to level the playing field for women ( Tavakolli, Najafi, & Ramezani, 2013 ). Given these insights we are treating women in sport as separate from men in sport in this discussion. The nature of sport is highly complex and changes at a remarkable pace. It is Barnett’s ( 2004 ) notion
Diane M. Culver, Erin Kraft, Cari Din and Isabelle Cayer
so that others can consider how they might do something similar. To lay the foundations for this best practice paper, we start by summarizing, for Canada, the status of women in sport leadership roles. Since the 1990s, national sport systems have grown and changed to include more programming and
Erin Morris, Ryan Vooris and Tara Q. Mahoney
suggest that women represent less than 25% of student enrollment in sport management programs ( Chen et al., 2013 ). Barnhill, Czekanski, and Pfleegor ( 2018 ) found that 36% of the respondents to their survey of 12 introduction to sport management courses were women. This low rate of women in sport
Claire-Marie Roberts and Jacky Forsyth
The inaugural Women in Sport and Exercise Conference was held at Staffordshire University on June 13–14, and brought together a number of academics, clinicians, practitioners, sport leaders, policymakers and administrators, charities, current and retired athletes, and the general public for a
Demetrius W. Pearson
Female involvement and accomplishments within sport have reached unprecedented levels. This has been due, in part, to the passing and enforcement of Title IX. Yet, few films have embraced female achievement in sport as indicated through their depiction as heroines (ìsheroesî). The author analyzed the salient similarities and differences between the depiction of women in sport theme feature films (sport films) before and after Title IX. Emphasis was placed on the aggregate number of sport films, type and content, and perceived social and cultural significance of female depictions. Content analysis and archival research methodologies were employed. These included the systematic examination and coding of all identified American sport films highlighting heroines from 1930-1999 (N = 41), as well as the analysis of critical reviews of the sport films which were unavailable for viewing. Based upon results there has been a notable increase in the depiction of women as heroines in sport films after Title IX. However, like their predecessors, women’s athletic prowess was trivialized in many of the films by their comedic themes and attentions to heterosexual attractiveness. These findings, as well as others, raise intriguing questions regarding the messages communicated through sport films.
Lea Ann “Beez” Schell and Stephanie Rodriguez
Italian Socialist Antonio Gramsci introduced the concept of hegemony in the early 1900s to describe how the capitalist elite maintain their dominant status, through a subtle imposition of ideology upon the masses. According to Gramsci, such a ruling class must generate a consensus of acceptance for dominant ideology. This consensus is created not by coercion, but through the influence of intellectuals and civic institutions. Gramsci’s concept may be applied to help explain the present status of American women in sport, by demonstrating the influence of masculinist hegemony over this institution. Women continue to face numerous barriers imposed by male hegemonic ideology, despite their recent attempts to gain equality and respect in sport. As well, some feminists may feel an ethical dilemma in their provision of support for women’s equality within an institution thought to be complicit with male hegemony. The purpose of this paper is to call attention to the difficulties faced by our sporting sisters and to identify proactive strategies that may work toward the elimination of gender-based economic, social, and political stratification in sport.
Nicole M. LaVoi, Jennifer E. McGarry and Leslee A. Fisher
This collection of articles about and for women in sport coaching provides more evidence of the occupational landscape and experiences of women. As with countless empirical articles before, the eight articles in this special issue of Women in Sport and Physical Activity Journal (WSPAJ) further
Lynda M. Nilges
With its diverse coverage of topics from a variety of perspectives, the Women in Sport and Physical Activity Journal is a significant resource for those working toward social change and gender empowerment inside and outside the arena of sport and physical activity. This article is a review of the scholarship contained in the Women in Sport and Physical Activity Journal over the last five years (1992-1996). Seven broad themes are used to organize this review, (1) The Meaning of Physical Activity, (2) Female Athletes in the Visual and Print Media, (3)Transforming Sport and Physical Activity, (4) Nutrition, Weight, and Body Image, (5) Scientific Foundations of the Active Female, (6) Historical Perspectives of Women in Sport, and (7) “Others.” Suggestions are offered for future research relative to women’s sport and physical activity based on the shift that has occurred in feminism over the last century.
Erin J. Reifsteck, Diane L. Gill and Donna M. Duffy
The Program for the Advancement of Girls and Women in Sport and Physical Activity (PAGWSPA) at University of North Carolina at Greensboro UNCG), in collaboration with the National Association for Girls and Women in Sport (NAGWS), hosted a joint National Conference on Girls and Women in Sport and Physical Activity on the UNCG campus, October 20-22, 2011. The conference brought together over 100 scholars, coaches, teachers, and students from across the country to share research, programs and relevant issues related to girls and women’s sport and physical activity. Reflecting the theme, “Discovering Strengths of Body and Mind,” the conference offered a wide variety of sessions including invited scholarly addresses, panel discussions, submitted research, program information, hands-on workshops and special events.
The following sections provide an overview of the conference, starting with summaries of the keynote presentations by Jan Todd, Nicole LaVoi and Carole Oglesby. The next sections provide summaries of the invited speakers, two panel sessions, and selected additional information. Brief bios for each of the invited speakers and panelists are provided at the end of the paper.