By 1880, over four million women, some 15 percent of all workers, were gainfully employed in the United States. 1 Roughly one in five of these working women lived apart from family and relatives. They were, in the parlance of the day, “women adrift,” a term used to describe Victorian women who
Women’s High-Wheel Bicycle Racing in Nineteenth-Century America: More than Salacious Entertainment
M. Ann Hall
Agreement Between the IPAQ and Accelerometer for Detecting Intervention-Related Changes in Physical Activity in a Sample of Latina Women
Virginie Nicaise, Noe C. Crespo, and Simon Marshall
Even when objective physical activity (PA) measures are preferred, many intervention studies with Latina women rely on self-reports because they are more feasible and the type and domain of PA is of interest.
This study examined the sensitivity and specificity of the IPAQ for detecting intervention-related changes in physical activity compared with accelerometer measurement among Latinas.
In March 2007, a community sample of 94 women (mean age = 36.31 ± 9.1 yr; mean body mass index = 31.37 ± 7.13) participated in a 12-week pedometer-based intervention to increase moderate intensity physical activity (MPA). Participants completed the Spanish-language International Physical Activity Questionnaire (Sp-IPAQ; telephone, long form) and wore an Actigraph accelerometer for 7 days at baseline and postintervention.
Both the IPAQ and the ActiGraph accelerometer detected intervention-related increases in MPA; however, these changes were largely uncorrelated. The IPAQ did not have acceptable level of sensitivity and specificity before and after the intervention when compared with objective assessments.
Data suggest that it is important to improve the sensitivity and specificity of the IPAQ with Spanish-speaking participants and further research is needed to accurately measure intervention effectiveness using self-reports of PA in Latinas.
High-Speed Resistance Training in Older Women: The Role of Supervision
Rodrigo Ramírez-Campillo, Cristian Martínez, Carlos I. de La Fuente, Eduardo L. Cadore, Mário C. Marques, Fabio Y. Nakamura, Irineu Loturco, Alexis Caniuqueo, Rodrigo Cañas, and Mikel Izquierdo
Older women participated in a 12-week high-speed resistance training program under two supervisor-to-subject ratio methods (i.e., high versus low supervision) to assess its effects on muscle strength, power, functional performance, and quality of life assessed before (T1) and after (T2) intervention. Women were divided into either the control group (CG, n = 15), high supervision group (HSG, n = 30), or low supervision group (LSG, n = 28). The training program included exercises requiring high-speed concentric muscle actions. No differences were observed among groups at T1. Between T1 and T2, the HSG showed a higher (p < .05) improvement in muscle strength (ES = 0.36–1.26), power (ES = 0.5–0.88), functional performance (ES = 0.52–0.78), and quality of life (ES = 0.44–0.82) compared with LSG and CG. High-speed resistance training under closer supervision is more effective for improving muscle strength, power, functional performance, and quality of life in older women.
Recapturing the Physical Activity Experiences of the Old: A Study of Three Women
Sandra O'Brien Cousins and Patricia A. Vertinsky
Few studies have tried to describe in detail the actual lifetime exercise experiences of very old women. In this paper, in-depth, guided life-course interviews with three women born in or before 1900 are used to shed light upon the social forces affecting the physical activities of young girls before the turn of the century. The late-life exercise patterns of these very old women appear to be rooted in very different ways to their past. However, the information gleaned from the interviews supports the early activation hypothesis that young girls at the turn of the century who were afforded opportunities and social support to develop physical skill in sport-type activities, or were physically challenged in domestic or farm labor, still appreciate and take advantage of the health-promoting aspects of exercise over 80 years later.
“Because There Are So Few of Us”: The Marginalization of Female Soccer Referees in Ontario, Canada
Kamiel Reid and Christine Dallaire
accreditation: Intermediate) Today, soccer represents the “game of choice” ( Hall, 2003 ) for women and girls in Canada. Indeed, it is the top team sport among women and the most frequently played of all sports among girls ages 5 to 14 years ( Canadian Heritage, 2013 ). Unlike hockey, which undoubtedly
The Effects of a 20-Week Exercise Training Program on Resting Metabolic Rate in Previously Sedentary, Moderately Obese Women
Heidi K. Byrne and Jack H. Wilmore
The present study was designed to investigate the effects of exercise training on resting metabolic rate (RMR) in moderately obese women. It was hypothesized that exercise training would increase resting metabolic rate. Nineteen previously sedentary, moderately obese women (age = 38.0 ± 0.9 years, percent body fat = 37.5 ± 0.8) trained for 20 weeks using either resistance training (RT) or a combination of resistance training arid walking (RT/W). The high intensity resistance training program was designed to increase strength and fat-free mass and the walking program to increase aerobic capacity. There was also a non-exercising control group (C) of 9 subjects in this study. Fat-free mass was significantly increased in both the RT (+1.90 kg) and RT/W (+1.90 kg) groups as a result of the training program. No group showed significant changes in fat mass or relative body fat from pre- to post-training. Aerobic capacity was slightly, though significantly, increased in the RT/W group only. The RT group showed a significant increase (+44 kcal · day−1), while the RT/W group showed a significant decrease (-53 kcal · day−1) in resting metabolic rate post-training. RT can potentiate an increase in RMR through an increase in fat-free mass, and the decrease in RMR in the RT/W group may have been a result of heat acclimation from the walk training.
The Believability of Exercise Blogs Among Young Adults
Elaine M. Ori, Tanya R. Berry, and Lira Yun
perceived and understood. However, there are no known studies examining the believability of exercise websites nor whether exercise websites have an impact on exercise-related thoughts and intentions. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to examine how young adult women perceive the believability of
Perceived Barriers and Sources of Support for Undergraduate Female Students’ Persistence in the Sport Management Major
Molly Hayes Sauder, Michael Mudrick, and Jaime R. DeLuca
management programs in the United States. Approximately 80% of programs had no more than two women out of every five students. Numbers were similarly skewed in program faculty. Roughly 29% of programs lacked a female faculty member, and 40% had less than 20% of their program comprised of female faculty
Influence of the Menstrual Cycle Phase on Marathon Performance in Recreational Runners
M. Greenhall, R.S. Taipale, J.K. Ihalainen, and A.C. Hackney
Female reproductive hormones go through large cyclical changes in eumenorrheic women over the course of their menstrual cycle (MC). Research shows that the female sex steroid hormones (SSH; estrogens and progestin) have physiologic roles beyond reproductive function, such as affecting metabolism
Back to Netball: Motivations for Participation in a Female-Focused Netball Sport Program
Amy Whitehead, Kanayo Umeh, Barbara Walsh, Eleanor Whittaker, and Colum Cronin
of physical activity and its role in improving motivation and increasing the feelings of competence in women, which in turn may reduce health risks ( Moreno-Murcia, Belando, Huescar & Torres, 2017 ). In response to some of the above concerns, the UK Government has created a Sporting Future Strategy