support ( Allen & Shaw, 2013 ). Unfortunately, this research paints a rather bleak picture of the plight of women coaches. LaVoi and Dutove’s ( 2012 ) literature review of barriers and supports for women coaches provided a useful examination of both sides and different levels of the picture using
Justine B. Allen and Colleen Reid
This study centers upon accounts of master women coaches in the UK, connecting the participants’ experiences of the structural practices within the coaching profession to their feelings of being undervalued and marginalized. By going beyond previous positivist and interpretive approaches to the issue of women coaches’ underrepresentation, I locate the participants’ narratives and their oppression within the wider sociocultural context of sport. The strength of patriarchy within sport and coaching is revealed in the private lives of the coaches. Consequently, the findings provoke methodological and theoretical implications for an alternative approach to understanding women’s long standing minority status within sports leadership.
Justine B. Allen and Sally Shaw
Researchers have argued that coaches are performers in their own right and that their psychological needs should be considered (Giges, Petitpas, & Vernacchia, 2004; Gould, Greenleaf, Guinan, & Chung, 2002). The purpose of this research was to examine high performance women coaches’ perceptions of their sport organizations’ social context, with specific attention to psychological need support. Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985; Ryan & Deci, 2002) was employed to frame the examination of the coaches’ experiences. Eight high performance women coaches from two sport organizations participated in semistructured interviews. All reported autonomy and competence development opportunities. Organizational relatedness was critical to the experience of a supportive environment. The findings provide insight into the “world of coaching” from the coaches’ perspective.
Bettina Callary, Penny Werthner and Pierre Trudel
Using Jarvis’ (2006) psychosocial perspective of human learning, we explore how the career choices and the subsequent coaching approaches of five Canadian women coaches have been influenced by their primary and secondary socialization. A content analysis was performed to identify how coaches learned in their primary socialization with their family, and in their secondary socialization at school and in their sport experiences. The findings indicate that the learning situations in their primary and secondary socialization influence the coaches’ career choices and their subsequent coaching approaches. These findings have implications for coaching education, enabling course developers and facilitators to understand (a) the importance of creating environments where coaches are able to critically reflect, and (b) how coaching approaches can be influenced by early life experiences.
Jane Marie Stangl and Mary Jo Kane
The dramatic decline of women coaches since Title IX has been well documented. This investigation examined how homologous reproduction has influenced the proportion of female to male head coaches within the historical context of Title IX. Homologous reproduction is a process whereby dominants reproduce themselves based on social and/or physical characteristics. Therefore the employment relationship between sex of athletic director and sex of head coach was considered. The sample included 937 public high schools for three Title IX time periods. Analysis of variance procedures indicated significant main effects for sex of athletic director and Title IX timeframe: Significantly more women were hired under female versus male athletic directors. However, there was also a significantly smaller proportion of female coaches in 1981-82 and 1988-89 compared to 1974-75. This latter pattern occurred under both female and male athletic directors. Findings are discussed in terms of analyzing employment practices toward females as manifestations of hegemony.
Diane M. Culver, Erin Kraft, Cari Din and Isabelle Cayer
conditions of women coaches . International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 8 ( 1 ), 1 – 17 . doi:10.1260/1747-9518.104.22.168 10.1260/1747-9522.214.171.124 Bertram , R. , Culver , D. , & Gilbert , W. ( 2017 ). A university sport coach community of practice: Using a value creation framework to
Matea Wasend and Nicole M. LaVoi
women’s and men’s teams ( Wilson, 2016 ). Although few studies have addressed the presence of women coaches at the youth and high school sport levels, what research does exist suggests that the representation of female coaches is similar or worse at those levels ( LaVoi, 2009 ). For instance, Messner
Irene A. Reid
Susan Wellman and Elaine Blinde
This is an examination of how homophobia and the lesbian label impact the professional careers of women basketball coaches at Division I universities. In-depth telephone interviews were conducted with 10 women who were head coaches of women’s intercollegiate basketball programs. Two areas in particular were explored in this 75-minute interview: (1) coaching careers, and (2) recruitment of athletes. Relative to coaching careers, coaches discussed how the homophobia in women’s sport narrowed career choices for women and impacted decisions related to the hiring of both head and assistant coaches. The lesbian label also was a concern in terms of the image projected by a basketball program. Secondly, coaches discussed how various aspects of the recruitment process were influenced by the lesbian label. Inquiries by prospective student-athletes, parents, and high school coaches about lesbians on a coaching staff or team were common. The practice of using insinuations about the presence of lesbians on rival teams was mentioned as a frequent negative recruitment technique. Concerns relative to lesbian issues also were identified as being influential in the recruitment decisions of some coaches. In general, most coaches preferred to discuss how lesbian issues impacted other coaches rather than relay accounts of their own experiences in coaching. Fear, silence, denial, and the apologetic were noted to underlie many of the responses provided by coaches.
Beth G. Clarkson, Elwyn Cox and Richard C. Thelwell
Background In stark contrast to a significant growth in women’s participation in football (soccer) over the past 20 years, such growth is not reflected in the number of women coaches at all levels of expertise ( Williams, 2013 ). Recent reports indicate that 80% of coaching positions in European