The purpose of this study was to examine the batting cage performance of wood and nonwood baseball bats used at the youth level. Three wood and ten nonwood bats were swung by 22 male players (13 to 18 years old) in a batting cage equipped with a 3-dimensional motion capture (300 Hz) system. Batted ball speeds were compared using a one-way ANOVA and bat swing speeds were analyzed as a function of bat moment of inertia by linear regression. Batted ball speeds were significantly faster for three nonwood bat models (P < .001), significantly slower for one nonwood model, and not different for six nonwood bats when compared with wood bats. Bat impact speed significantly (P < .05) decreased with increasing bat moment of inertia for the 13-, 14-, and 15-year-old groups, but not for the other age groups. Ball-bat coefficients of restitution (BBCOR) for all nonwood were greater than for wood, but this factor alone did not correlate with bat performance. Our findings indicate that increases in BBCOR and swing speed were not associated with faster batted ball speeds for the bats studied whose moment of inertia was substantially less than that of a wood bat of similar length.
Joseph J. Crisco, Michael J. Rainbow, Joel B. Schwartz and Bethany J. Wilcox
Richard M. Greenwald, Lori H. Penna and Joseph J. Crisco
Differences in the performance of wood and metal baseball bats, measured as a function of batted ball speed, were quantified in a batting cage study. Two wood and five metal baseball bat models were studied with 19 players of various levels of experience ranging from high school to professional. Batted ball speeds from 538 hits were computed from high-speed 3-D ball position data collected with a commercially available system. In general, metal bats had significantly higher batted ball speeds than wood bats. Of the five metal bat models studied, one outperformed all other models and one bat was most similar to wood bats. The average difference in batted ball speed between wood bats and the highest performing metal bat was approximately 9 mph. Maximum batted ball speeds of 101 and 106 mph were measured for wood and metal bats, respectively. Increased skill level significantly increased the maximum batted ball speeds generated independent of bat model. Players of all experience levels were able to generate batted ball speeds in excess of 100 mph. While the results of this study are limited to the specific bats tested, this is the first study to measure and report differences in batted ball speeds among wood and metal bats.
This case study examines the Tiger Woods sex scandal using second-level agenda setting and attribute priming as its theoretical structures. It approaches the case through the compelling-arguments hypothesis to explain the transfer of salience from the media agenda to the public agenda. A content analysis of print and broadcast media is employed to determine the dominance of scandal stories in general, and the “sex/adultery” attribute in particular, on the media agenda. This study also uses attribute priming to measure the presence of opinion and its direction in the public, after exposure to the scandal stories. The data that form the public agenda come from a nationally representative survey of the American public, as well as online search queries on Google.
of many other sports ( Woods, 2017b ). If optimistic predictions hold, the 2020s will mark a notable shift in U.S. disc-golf recreation ( Plansky, 2013 ). The emergence of disc golf as a mainstream sport would lead to new manufacturing and tourism industries and increase the use of public parks
Susan K. Lynn and Amelia Mays Woods
The Fessler and Christensen (1992) teacher career cycle model provides the theoretical framework for this case study incorporating a narrative design nested within a larger research project examining six teachers’ journey across the career cycle (Woods & Earls, 1995; Woods & Lynn, 2001). The current case study sought to gain a greater understanding of why one teacher, Patsy, was unable to negotiate environmental hurdles that are commonplace in physical education and how these factors were being negotiated as a classroom teacher. Data sources included: seven interviews with the participant, multiple interviews with her principals, spouse, and three former university teacher educators, field notes from live lesson observations, and related documents. An interpretative framework was used to understand the perceptions and meanings Patsy gave to her experiences and revealed that she reported being both positively and negatively affected by most of the personal and organizational environmental factors in the teacher career cycle model. Viewing Patsy’s teaching career through the lens of the career cycle provides insight into areas of change necessary to motivate and retain quality physical education teachers.
Marianne Woods, Grace Goc Karp and Michael R. Judd
Given recent evidence that a shortage of qualified candidates for PETE positions exists (Boyce & Rikard, 2008; Woods, Goc Karp, & Feltz, 2003), this dual purposed study was designed to examine the nature of and possible factors that may contribute to that shortage. The first purpose was to examine the results of searches from the perspectives of search chairs for PETE positions posted during the 2007–08 academic year. The second purpose was to determine K-12 teachers’ perceptions about pursuing advanced degrees and careers in PETE. Search chairs highlighted low numbers of qualified applicants and the need for strategies that improve the recruitment of individuals to choose PETE doctoral studies. The majority of teachers (52%) reported aspirations to continue their careers teaching at the K-12 level instead of pursuing teaching in higher education. Suggestions for policy reexamination in PETE doctoral programs related to hiring and recruitment are provided.
Amelia Mays Woods and Suzan F. Ayers
increased over the last 25 years, as the retention of first-year teachers continues to decrease ( Ingersoll, Merrill, & Stuckey, 2014 ). Both recruitment and retention of Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) students are critical to graduating teachers for the work force. Woods, Richards, and Ayers
Suzan F. Ayers and Amelia Mays Woods
recommendations for best practice. Woods, Richards, and Ayers ( 2016 ) expanded the conversation from a practical perspective by considering actions PETE faculty members, in collaboration with K-12 teachers and community college contacts, may incorporate to improve PETE enrollments. Example strategies included
Chad M. Killian and Amelia Mays Woods
embedded in the flipped instructional approach and student performance. The flipped instructional approach has also been studied in a university bowling course, in which students were required to engage with online instructional videos prior to arriving in class ( Killian, Trendowski, & Woods, 2016