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Nicholas D. Gilson, Caitlin Hall, Angela Renton, Norman Ng and William von Hippel

investigated the associations between sitting and work productivity. Although health outcomes are important, wide-scale uptake of activity-promoting desks will depend on employers and employees being convinced that they improve or, at the very least, do not compromise work output. The present experimental

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Ronald Croce and Michael Horvat

The present study evaluated the effects of a reinforcement based aerobic and resistance exercise program on three obese men with mental retardation and below average fitness levels. A multiple-baseline-across-subjects design was employed to evaluate treatment effectiveness and retention of treatment effects on five dependent measures: body weight, percent body fat (body composition), oxygen consumption (predicted max V̇O2 in ml/kg/min), composite isometric strength (in kg of force), and work productivity (pieces of work completed). Subjects improved during treatment from their baseline scores on cardiovascular fitness, strength, and work productivity measurements (p<.05); however, retention of gains made during treatment were inconsistent and the data that indicated subjects’ scores were regressing back toward baseline measurements. There were no significant differences for body weight and percent body fat measurements for treatment and retention phases (p>.05). Results indicated that adults with mental retardation respond to a progressive exercise program in much the same manner as their nonretarded peers and that such an exercise program can facilitate job performance.

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Chunmei Cao, Yu Liu, Weimo Zhu and Jiangjun Ma

Background:

Recently developed active workstation could become a potential means for worksite physical activity and wellness promotion. The aim of this review was to quantitatively examine the effectiveness of active workstation in energy expenditure and job performance.

Methods:

The literature search was conducted in 6 databases (PubMed, SPORTDiscuss, Web of Science, ProQuest, ScienceDirect, and Scopuse) for articles published up to February 2014, from which a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted.

Results:

The cumulative analysis for EE showed there was significant increase in EE using active workstation [mean effect size (MES): 1.47; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22 to 1.72, P < .0001]. Results from job performance indicated 2 findings: (1) active workstation did not affect selective attention, processing speed, speech quality, reading comprehension, interpretation and accuracy of transcription; and (2) it could decrease the efficiency of typing speed (MES: –0.55; CI: –0.88 to –0.21, P < .001) and mouse clicking (MES: –1.10; CI: –1.29 to –0.92, P < .001).

Conclusion:

Active workstation could significantly increase daily PA and be potentially useful in reducing workplace sedentariness. Although some parts of job performance were significantly lower, others were not. As a result there was little effect on real-life work productivity if we made a good arrangement of job tasks.

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Nicholas Gilson, Jim McKenna and Carlton Cooke

Background:

This study explored the experiences of university employees recruited to a 10-week randomized controlled trial (n = 64). The trial compared “walking routes” with “walking-while-working” on daily step totals, showing that, compared with controls, interventions resulted in around 1000 extra steps per day.

Methods:

A subsample of 15 academic and administrative employees from intervention groups completed interviews at the end of intervention. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and subject to inductive coding within the major themes of benefits/positives and problems/barriers.

Findings:

Both interventions benefited employee health and work productivity but were difficult to implement in the workplace. Involvement in walking routes was challenged by the difficulties of managing time pressures, and individuals assigned to walking-while-working had to deal with local management subcultures favoring physical presence and inactivity.

Conclusions:

Findings highlight the need for further research, advocate the value of walking at work, and provide insights into the challenges that face staff in workplace interventions.

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Helen Elizabeth Brown, Nicola Burton, Nicholas David Gilson and Wendy Brown

Background:

An emerging area of interest in workplace health is presenteeism; the measurable extent to which physical or psychosocial symptoms, conditions and disease adversely affect the work productivity of those who choose to remain at work. Given established links between presenteeism and health, and health and physical activity, presenteeism could be an important outcome in workplace physical activity research. This study provides a narrative review of questionnaires for use in such research.

Methods:

Eight self-report measures of presenteeism were identified. Information regarding development, constructs measured and psychometric properties was extracted from relevant articles.

Results:

Questionnaires were largely self-administered, had 4–44 items, and recall periods ranging from 1 week to 1 year. Items were identified as assessing work performance, physical tolerance, psychological well-being and social or role functioning. Samples used to test questionnaires were predominantly American male employees, with an age range of 30–59 years. All instruments had undergone psychometric assessment, most commonly discriminant and construct validity.

Conclusion:

Based on instrument characteristics, the range of conceptual foci covered and acceptable measurement properties, the Health and Work Questionnaire, Work Ability Index, and Work Limitations Questionnaire are suggested as most suitable for further exploring the relationship between physical activity and presenteeism.

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Timothy J. Walker, Jessica M. Tullar, Pamela M. Diamond, Harold W. Kohl III and Benjamin C. Amick III

with a focus on health-related work productivity loss . In: Wittink H , Carr D , eds. Evidence, Outcomes & Quality of Life in Pain Treatment: A Handbook for Pain Treatment Professionals . London, UK : Elsevier ; 2007 : 329 – 343 . 10. Goetzel RZ , Long SR , Ozminkowski RJ , Hawkins

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Katie Weatherson, Lira Yun, Kelly Wunderlich, Eli Puterman and Guy Faulkner

due to nonwear. 8 , 9 They are also unable to measure important factors that influence behavior, such as mood or other contextual factors/outcomes (eg, work productivity). Real time, self-report assessment strategies, and recent advances in technology can help to overcome some of these limitations

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Karen S. Meaney and Sonya L. Armstrong

violence comprising verbal abuse and strategic offenses that interfere with the victim’s work productivity. Furthermore, workplace bullying is not limited by boundaries of race, gender, ethnicity, religion, or sexual orientation ( Namie, 2003 ). Bullying in Higher Education Although seldom openly discussed

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Ítalo Ribeiro Lemes, Xuemei Sui, Stacy L. Fritz, Paul F. Beattie, Carl J. Lavie, Bruna Camilo Turi-Lynch and Steven N. Blair

frequent health problem among economically productive age groups with adverse effects on daily functionality. 27 Another chronic joint condition, such as arthritis, has a clinically significant impact on health-related quality of life and work productivity among US adults, independent of other health

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Robert J. Kowalsky, Sophy J. Perdomo, John M. Taormina, Christopher E. Kline, Andrea L. Hergenroeder, Jeffrey R. Balzer, John M. Jakicic and Bethany Barone Gibbs

breaks that are not disruptive to coworkers. Another environmental barrier could be unfavorable weather, which could hamper outdoor walking and activity breaks participation that cannot be performed inside the workspace. Other limitations may include real or perceived decreases in work productivity from