The work-family interface continues to be an important research area as the positive (Carlson, Kacmar, Wayne, & Grzywacz, 2006; Greenhaus & Powell, 2006; Parasuraman & Greenhaus, 2002; Sieber, 1974) and negative (Duxbury, Lyons, & Higgins, 2011; Frone, Russell, & Barnes, 1996; Greenhaus & Parasuraman, 1999; Kahn, Wolfe, Quinn, Snoek, & Rosenthal, 1964; Mullen, Kelley, & Kelloway, 2011; Netemeyer, Boles, & McMurrian, 1996) consequences of successfully balancing work and family have implications for both individuals and organizations. Within sport management, most research has focused on issues surrounding the work-family interface of coaching mothers (Bruening & Dixon, 2007; Dixon & Bruening, 2005, 2007; Dixon & Sagas, 2007; Schenewark & Dixon, 2012; Palmer & Leberman, 2009). Recent research outside of sport management suggests that fathers also perceive tension between work and family (Galinsky, Aumann, & Bond, 2011; Harrington, Van Deusen, & Humberd, 2011; Parker & Wang, 2013). Therefore, this article examines the work-family interface of coaching fathers, with a focus on the further development of a research agenda.
Jeff Alexander Graham and Marlene A. Dixon
Sarah I. Leberman and Nicole M. LaVoi
Despite the ubiquitous presence of mothers in sport contexts, mothers’ voices are often absent in the sport literature, particularly at the youth sport level. A phenomenological approach was used to explore the experiences of working mother volunteer youth sport coaches. A role-triad model based on the work-family enrichment and role enhancement literature provided the theoretical framework. The purpose was to understand how and why working mother-coaches mange this role triad and to identify mother-worker skills which may transfer to youth coaching and vice versa. Semistructured interviews were conducted with eight working mother-coaches and analyzed for themes. Findings suggest that notions of being a good mother and reasons for coaching are very similar, including spending time together, developing life skills and role modeling. Participants negotiated multiple roles using cognitive tools, such as reframing and separation of roles. The reciprocal benefits of motherhood, working and coaching for themselves and others were highlighted.
Jeffrey A. Graham and Marlene A. Dixon
). Scholars have called for a more balanced research agenda in regard to the sport industry in which the phenomena of work–family conflict (WFC) and work–family enrichment (WFE) are examined among men who are fathers ( Dixon & Bruening, 2007 ; Graham & Dixon, 2014 ; Schenewark & Dixon, 2012 ). This study
Jeffrey Graham, Allison Smith and Sylvia Trendafilova
Management, 9, 250 – 272 . Carlson , D.S. , Kacmar , K.M. , Wayne , J.H. , & Grzywacz , J.G. ( 2006 ). Measuring the positive side of the work-family interface: Development and validation of a work-family enrichment scale . Journal of Vocational Behavior, 68 ( 1 ), 131 – 164 . doi: 10.1016/j
K. Andrew R. Richards, Nicholas Washburn and Ye Hoon Lee
Michigan . Carlson , D. , Kacmar , K.M. , Zivnuska , S. , & Ferguson , M. ( 2011 ). Work-family enrichment and job performance: A constructive replication of affective events theory . Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 16, 297 – 312 . PubMed ID: 21728437 doi:10.1037/a0022880 10.1037/a
Elizabeth A. Taylor, Jessica L. Siegele, Allison B. Smith and Robin Hardin
. ( 2004 ). Research methods for sports studies . London, UK : Routledge . Greenhaus , J.H. , & Powell , G.N. ( 2006 ). When work and family are allies: A theory of work-family enrichment . Academy of Management Review, 31 , 72 – 92 . doi:10.5465/AMR.2006.19379625 10.5465/amr.2006