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Nicholas D. Gilson, Caitlin Hall, Andreas Holtermann, Allard J. van der Beek, Maaike A. Huysmans, Svend Erik Mathiassen and Leon Straker

contributors to both the volume and pattern of occupational sedentary behavior and PA. From a health and safety perspective, patterns of occupational sitting and moving should ideally offer sufficient variation, while not restricting worker productivity. 4 Yet, for many office (or “white collar”) workers

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Julie K. Black, Anna C. Whittaker and George M. Balanos

OSA. Recently, Webber et al. ( 2011 ) illustrated the incidence of undiagnosed OSA in a group of male rescue workers (firefighters and emergency medical staff; n  = 13,330) with a mean age of 44.2 years and found that only 13.9% who were deemed at risk for OSA were actually diagnosed. Owing to an

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Ilca M.S. Diniz, Maria de Fátima S. Duarte, Karen G. Peres, Elusa S.A. de Oliveira and Angélia Berndt

Objective:

The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an educational intervention on active commuting by bicycle.

Methods:

An intervention study with workers from a metallurgical industry in Santa Catarina state, Brazil was carried out in 2011. A total of 464 individuals were placed in the intervention group (IG) and 468 in the control group (CG). The intervention consisted of strategies based on the transtheoretical model and stages of behavior change. The intervention group took part in activities for 6 months, including 23 meetings. The statistical analysis included intergroup comparison (IG × CG) at baseline and after the intervention. Intragroup analysis was performed 6 months after the intervention. Student’s t-test, chi-square, and McNemar tests were used to analyze the data.

Results:

Of the original total, 876 individuals (94%) participated in the study. The proportion of participants that used bicycles to commute to work (IG) increased significantly from baseline (45.3%) to the final interventional period (47.5%). No difference was found between the CG and the IG group after the interventional period.

Conclusion:

We suggest taking these findings into consideration in further studies to understand better the role of educational intervention on active commuting by bicycle.

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Tim Henwood, Sharon Hetherington, Madeleine Purss, Kevin Rouse, Julie Morrow and Michele Smith

supplied by a home care worker (HCW) holding either a Certificate III or IV in Individual Support (Aged Care) ( Australian Government, 2015 ). Traditionally, these services do not incorporate rehabilitation-focused activities. However, recent evidence demonstrates that allied health professional (AHP) in

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Holly Thorpe and Megan Chawansky

transnational sport workers in challenging global contexts. In this article, we seek to address the voids identified by Sherry et al. ( 2015 ) as we identify key management issues as experienced by international female staff working for Skateistan, the SfD project operating in Afghanistan, Cambodia, and South

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Kyungro Chang and Packianathan Chelladurai

This study investigated the differences in job attitudes between part-time (n = 96) and full-time (n = 82) workers in Korean sports organizations. They responded to a questionnaire including Meyer and Allen's (1984) scales for affective (AC) and continuance commitment (CC), and Smith, Organ, and Neat’s (1983) organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) questionnaire. Confirmatory factor analyses of the data supported the subscale structures and the equivalence of measurement in the two groups. The full-time workers scored significantly higher on AC and OCB while the part-time workers scored higher on CC. While the relationship between AC and OCB was positive and significant in both groups, it was stronger in the full-time group than in the part-time group. The relationship between CC and OCB was significant and negative only in the case of the full-time group. The implication is that part-time work is not as conducive as fall-time work for developing affective commitment or organizational citizenship behavior.

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Camille Gagné and Isabelle Harnois

Background:

Data available indicate that numerous childcare workers are not strongly motivated to engage children aged 3–5 in physical activity. Using the theory of planned behavior as the main theoretical framework, this study has 2 objectives: to identify the determinants of the intention of childcare workers to engage preschoolers in physical activity and to identify the variables that could be used to develop an intervention to motivate childcare workers to support preschoolers’ physical activity.

Methods:

174 childcare workers from 60 childcare centers selected at random in 2 regions of Quebec completed a self-administered questionnaire assessing the constructs of the theory of planned behavior as well as past behavior, descriptive norm and moral norm.

Results:

Moral norm, perceived behavioral control and subjective norm explained 85% of the variance in intention to engage the children in physical activity.

Conclusions:

To motivate childcare workers, it is necessary that they perceive that directors, children’s parents and coworkers approve of their involvement in children’s physical activity. In addition, their ability to overcome perceived barriers (lack of time, loaded schedule, inclement weather) should be developed. Access to a large outdoor yard might also help motivate childcare workers.

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Dinesh John, Dixie L. Thompson, Hollie Raynor, Kenneth Bielak, Bob Rider and David R. Bassett

Purpose:

To determine if a treadmill-workstation (TMWS) increases physical activity (PA) and influences anthropometric, body composition, cardiovascular, and metabolic variables in overweight and obese office-workers.

Methods:

Twelve (mean age= 46.2 ± 9.2 years) overweight/obese sedentary office-workers (mean BMI= 33.9 ± 5.0 kg·m-2) volunteered to participate in this 9-month study. After baseline measurements of postural allocation, steps per day, anthropometric variables, body composition, cardiovascular, and metabolic variables, TMWS were installed in the participants’ offices for their use. Baseline measurements were repeated after 3 and 9 months. Comparisons of the outcome variables were made using repeated-measures ANOVAs or nonparametric Friedman’s Rank Tests.

Results:

Between baseline and 9 months, significant increases were seen in the median standing (146−203 min·day-1) and stepping time (52−90 min·day-1) and total steps/day (4351−7080 steps/day; P < .05). Correspondingly, the median time spent sitting/lying decreased (1238−1150 min·day-1; P < .05). Using the TMWS significantly reduced waist (by 5.5 cm) and hip circumference (by 4.8 cm), low-density lipoproteins (LDL) (by 16 mg·dL-1), and total cholesterol (by 15 mg·dL-1) during the study (P < .05).

Conclusion:

The additional PA energy expenditure from using the TMWS favorably influenced waist and hip circumferences and lipid and metabolic profiles in overweight and obese office-workers.

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Stine Kloster, Ida Høgstedt Danquah, Andreas Holtermann, Mette Aadahl and Janne Schurmann Tolstrup

Background:

Harmful health effects associated with sedentary behavior may be attenuated by breaking up long periods of sitting by standing or walking. However, studies assess interruptions in sitting time differently, making comparisons between studies difficult. It has not previously been described how the definition of minimum break duration affects sitting outcomes. Therefore, the aim was to address how definitions of break length affect total sitting time, number of sit-to-stand transitions, prolonged sitting periods and time accumulated in prolonged sitting periods among office workers.

Methods:

Data were collected from 317 office workers. Thigh position was assessed with an ActiGraph GT3X+ fixed on the right thigh. Data were exported with varying bout length of breaks. Afterward, sitting outcomes were calculated for the respective break lengths.

Results:

Absolute numbers of sit-to-stand transitions decreased, and number of prolonged sitting periods and total time accumulated in prolonged sitting periods increased, with increasing minimum break length. Total sitting time was not influenced by varying break length.

Conclusions:

The definition of minimum break length influenced the sitting outcomes with the exception of total sitting time. A standard definition of break length is needed for comparison and interpretation of studies in the evolving research field of sedentary behavior.

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Leandro Martin Totaro Garcia, Kelly Samara da Silva, Giovâni F. Del Duca, Filipe Ferreira da Costa and Markus Vinicius Nahas

Background:

Our purpose was to examine the association of television viewing (hours/day), sedentary work (predominantly sitting at work), passive transportation to work (car or motorcycle), and the clustering of these behaviors (“sedentary lifestyle”), as well as leisure-time physical inactivity (LTPI), with chronic diseases (hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and clustering of chronic diseases) in Brazilian workers.

Methods:

Cross-sectional study conducted from 2006 to 2008 in 24 Brazilian federal units (n = 47,477). A questionnaire was applied. Descriptive statistics, binary and multinomial logistic regressions were used.

Results:

Magnitude of association with chronic diseases varied greatly across domains and gender. Sedentariness at work was the most consistent behavior associated with chronic diseases, especially in men (ORhypertension = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.01–1.20; ORhypercholesterolemia = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.21–1.48; ORobesity = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.15–1.41; OR1chronic disease = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.09–1.26; OR≥2chronic diseases = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.46–1.78) compared with women (ORhypercholesterolemia = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.01–1.31; ORobesity = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.04–1.48). LTPI was associated with all diseases in men (except type 2 diabetes), but only with obesity in women.

Conclusion:

Adverse health consequences may be differently associated according to behavior domain and gender. Sedentary work and LTPI were consistently associated with chronic disease in Brazilian workers, especially in men.