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Martin Camiré, Meredith Rocchi, and Kelsey Kendellen

Each academic year, a large number of teachers voluntarily assume coaching positions in Canadian high schools and thus undertake the dual role of teacher-coach. To date, much of the scholarship on teacher-coaches has been conducted with small samples of participants and as such, the conclusions that can be drawn about the status of the Canadian teacher-coach are limited. The purpose of the current study was to profile the Canadian high school teacher-coach using a national sample. A total of 3062 teacher-coaches (males = 2046, 67%) emanating from all Canadian provinces and territories completed a questionnaire examining personal background and work conditions. Results indicated that aspects of teacher-coaches’ personal background significantly influenced the benefits and challenges they perceived from coaching as well as the recommendations they suggested to improve their coaching experience. The recommendations put forth by the teacher-coaches to improve their work conditions must be earnestly considered by school administrators to ensure the long-term viability of the Canadian high school sport system, which is largely sustained by dedicated volunteers.

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Minhyun Kim, José A. Santiago, Chan Woong Park, and Emily A. Roper

approximately 39% of certified APE teachers were seriously considering another job outside of APE and 26% were actively searching for another job outside APE in the last 2 years. Working conditions, school policies and administration, and interpersonal relationships with supervisors were ranked as the leading

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George H. Sage

The focus of this study is on the organizational dynamics, collective actions, and outcomes of a transnational advocacy network that was formed to protest the labor practices of Nike’s sport shoe factories in Asia. Transnational advocacy networks arise and are sustained with the intent of changing social conditions. The Nike transnational network sought to improve the lives of workers in Nike factories in Asia so that they have jobs that pay a living wage, have good working conditions, can organize on their own behalf, and are treated with dignity and respect. A broad theoretical perspective that emphasizes the determinant and interactive effects of the emergence, development, and accomplishments of the Nike transnational network is employed.

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Michelle Moosbrugger

A case study design was implemented to examine how a female coach has sustained her career. A collegiate field hockey coach with over 30 years of experience and two of her former athletes, both of whom returned to serve as assistant coaches, were interviewed. Following evaluation of higher order themes emerging from the data, the manner in which the coach sustained a lengthy coaching career was found to be analogous to a field hockey player performing in the sport. Much like an athlete who has honed her individual skills, surrounded herself with talented teammates, allowed teammates to assist, used variety in implementing skills, and maintained balance in life, the coach has crafted a successful coaching career. Her internal attributes and maintenance of support, the discovery of an inclusive work environment, seeking variety over time, and achieving balance aided her continuity. The experiences of the coach illuminate the importance of creating favorable working conditions and employing coping strategies in order to sustain a lengthy coaching career.

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Linda S. Koehler

It is proposed that the focus of sport management research be broadened to include those individuals who fill management positions in sport/fitness-related enterprises. A particularly useful approach is that of organizational behavior as it pertains to sport/fitness managers. Drawing from the content of organizational behavior for use in the study presented here, items of measure for job satisfaction include ability utilization, achievement, activity, advancement, authority, company policies/practices, compensation, co-workers, creativity, independence, moral values, recognition, responsibility, security, social service, social status, supervision-human relations, supervision-technical, variety, and working conditions. The corporate fitness managers participating in this study reported their level of general job satisfaction to be an average of 78.67 out of a possible 100 points. The factors shown to be significantly more satisfying than all other factors at the .05 level were social service and moral values. Additionally, although not significantly different from each other, both factors of advancement and compensation were revealed to be significantly more dissatisfying at the .05 level than all other factors.

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Mohan Ganesan, Yun-Ju Lee, and Alexander S. Aruin

The use of a footrest while performing activity in standing is frequently associated with improvement of a user’s well-being however no information exists on the role of a footrest in improving postural stability. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of using a footrest in postural control. Twenty healthy young volunteers were tested using three experimental conditions: standing with two feet on the force platform and standing on the force platform when one foot was placed on a 15 cm footrest positioned in front or laterally. The mean and root mean square distance, range and velocity of the center of pressure (COP) were calculated in the anterior-posterior (AP) and medio-lateral (ML) directions using the force platform data. The COP displacements in AP and ML directions increased in conditions of standing with one foot placed on the footrest regardless of its location. Standing with eyes closed increased COP displacements further. The outcome of the study suggests the importance of using COP measures for evaluation of postural stability and provides additional information needed for optimization of working conditions involving standing with a footrest.

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Lars Janshen, Klaus Mattes, and Günter Tidow

In sweep-oar rowers, asymmetrical force production of the legs is a known phenomenon. The purpose of this study was to investigate the muscular activity of the legs that may cause this asymmetry even when oarsmen perform a symmetrical endurance task. Seven male young elite oarsmen performed an all-out 2000-m test on a rowing ergometer. During stroke kinematics, myoelectric activity of six muscles of each leg and pressure distribution under both feet were measured. Data were collected over two 30-s time windows starting 1 and 5 min after the test started. No significant differences were observed between legs and time windows for the range of motion of the hip, knee, and ankle joint as well as for the onset/offset timing of muscles. However, in the drive phase, the knee and hip muscles of the leg on the oar side (inside leg) showed 20–45% (both p < .05) higher activation intensities compared with the leg opposite the oar (outside leg). Corresponding to this, 56–91% (both p < .05) higher mean pressure values under the ball of the inside foot compared with the outside foot indicated an asymmetrical force production of the legs even under kinematically symmetrical working conditions.

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Alba Pardo, Anna Mitjans, Lucía Baranda, Manel Salamero, James McKenna, Antoni Arteman, and Mariona Violán


Little is known about lifestyle choices and preventive healthcare-seeking behaviors during the transition from medical school graduation to residency training, a period characterized by increased rates of stress and lack of free time due to demanding working conditions. All of these issues are likely to affect physical activity (PA) level. This study explored the evolution of PA and other lifestyle behaviors during this transition.


A cross-sectional study and a cohort study were conducted with medical students (2010) and physicians before and after the first year of residency (2013 and 2014). A self-administered questionnaire assessed PA, health and lifestyle behaviors.


From a sample of 420 medical students and 478 residents, 74% comply with current PA guidelines. PA decreased by 16% during residency. Low levels of PA were found among (i) females and in respondents who reported (ii) poor self-perceived health and (iii) unhealthy body weight (P < .05). Low PA level was also significantly associated with poor mental health in first-year residents.


The transition has a negative effect on physicians’ PA level that may affect physicians’ own health and patient care. Medical programs should encourage residents to engage in PA to assure physicians’ personal and mental health.

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Phillip Ward, Hans van der Mars, Murray F. Mitchell, and Hal A. Lawson

Manifest challenges to physical education teachers merit identification, analysis, and strategic action. New designs for schools, threats to the well-being of a growing number of children and families, and financial problems confronting school systems are among the external challenges. Meanwhile, too many physical education teachers confront marginalization, isolation, and morale issues. Contributing causes include suboptimal policy; disagreements regarding subject matter, curriculum models, and purposes; working conditions that prevent teachers from implementing evidence-based practices; and two disconnects: (a) between physical education and health and (b) between school programs and community-based programs. Reflecting and fueling these challenges, the field lacks a common purpose and shared direction. This chapter addresses future alternatives for PK–12 physical education. Key recommendations include (a) integrating physical education and health, treating them both instructionally and as integrated content in the curriculum; (b) changing our focus on our instruction from a deficiency-based model to a salutogenic model of health, including stronger connections with the community in which schools exist; and (c) connecting to the community to leverage resources to support students, teachers, and schools. These alternatives derive from a grand claim: we cannot continue to do “business as usual,” producing the same results, because past–present results consistently have been suboptimal.

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Steffen Willwacher, Manuel König, Wolfgang Potthast, and Gert-Peter Brüggemann

Longitudinal midsole bending stiffness and elasticity are two critical features in the construction of running shoes. Stiff elastic materials (eg, carbon fiber) can be used to alter the midsole bending behavior. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of midsole stiffness and elasticity manipulation on metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint mechanics during running in 19 male subjects at 3.5 m/s. Midsole bending stiffness and elasticity were modified by means of carbon fiber insoles of varying thickness. Stiffening the shoe structures around the MTP joint caused a shift of the point of force application toward the front edge of the shoe-ground interface. Negative work was significantly reduced for the stiffest shoe condition and at the same time a significant increase of positive work at the MTP joint was found. It seems plausible that the increase in positive work originates from the reutilization of elastic energy that was stored inside the passive elastic structures of the shoe and toe flexing muscle tendon units. Further, an increase in midsole longitudinal bending stiffness seems to alter the working conditions and mechanical power generation capacities of the MTP plantar flexing muscle tendon units by changing ground reaction force leverage and MTP angular velocity.