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Effect of Auditory or Visual Working Memory Training on Dual-Task Interference

Takehide Kimura and Ryouta Matsuura

, Munkhetvit, Lugade, & Silsupadol, 2017 ). For this reason, it is difficult to use dual-task training to solve various problems caused by dual-task interference in daily life. Recently, it was reported that working memory (WM) training reduced dual-task interference ( Heinzel, Rimpel, Stelzel, & Rapp, 2017

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An Analysis of the Working Memories of Expert Sport Instructors

Bryan McCullick, Paul Schempp, Shan-Hui Hsu, Jin Hong Jung, Brad Vickers, and Greg Schuknecht

A distinguishing characteristic of expert teachers appears to be an excellent memory (Berliner, 1986; Tan, 1997). Possessing an excellent memory aids experts in building a substantial knowledge base relative to teaching and learning. Despite its importance, the memory skills of expert teachers have yet to be investigated. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the working memories of expert sport instructors. Forty-three expert teachers served as subjects for this study. Each teacher was shown a series of slides depicting play and instructional situations in their respective domains. The test required that the subjects view a slide for 5 seconds and then recall as much as they could from the slide. The audio taped responses were transcribed and then analyzed inductively using Huberman and Miles’ (1995) four stage analysis framework to draw themes and commonalities from the data. The findings revealed three themes of experts’ working memories: (a) voluminous and rich, (b) a dominant order, and (c) include a thorough skill analysis. There is support for Berliner (1986) and Tan’s (1997) contention that experts have excellent memories, arrange their knowledge in a hierarchical manner, and are able to discern the important from the unimportant.

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Working Memory Capacity as Controlled Attention in Tactical Decision Making

Philip A. Furley and Daniel Memmert

The controlled attention theory of working memory capacity (WMC, Engle 2002) suggests that WMC represents a domain free limitation in the ability to control attention and is predictive of an individual’s capability of staying focused, avoiding distraction and impulsive errors. In the present paper we test the predictive power of WMC in computer-based sport decision-making tasks. Experiment 1 demonstrated that high-WMC athletes were better able at focusing their attention on tactical decision making while blocking out irrelevant auditory distraction. Experiment 2 showed that high-WMC athletes were more successful at adapting their tactical decision making according to the situation instead of relying on prepotent inappropriate decisions. The present results provide additional but also unique support for the controlled attention theory of WMC by demonstrating that WMC is predictive of controlling attention in complex settings among different modalities and highlight the importance of working memory in tactical decision making.

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The Roles of Declarative Knowledge and Working Memory in Explicit Motor Learning and Practice Among Children With Low Motor Abilities

Femke van Abswoude, John van der Kamp, and Bert Steenbergen

; Maxwell, Masters, & Eves, 2003 ). In particular, the conscious memorizing and manipulation of information relies on working memory. Consequently, working memory capacity may affect explicit learning, especially in the initial stage of learning. That is, with practice, the need for conscious control and

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The Effect of Gender Stereotype Threat and Conceptions of Ability on Motor Learning and Working Memory

Narges Nahidi, Esmaeel Saemi, Mohammadreza Doustan, Joshua Aronson, and Raphaël Laurin

inducing the inherent nature of the skill. Another factor related to the impact of stereotype threat is working memory capacity. Working memory can be considered a short-term memory system that is involved in the control, regulation, and active maintenance of a limited amount of information that is related

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Enhanced Decision Making and Working Memory During Exercise in the Heat With Crushed Ice Ingestion

Jacinta M. Saldaris, Grant J. Landers, and Brendan S. Lay

Cognitive function is the performance of objective tasks that require conscious mental effort and is an emerging area in sport performance. Functions involving decision making, working memory, and executive control are important during many sporting situations and are explored in this study. In

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Working Memory Task Influence in Postural Stability and Cognitive Function in Adolescents

Isaac Estevan, Sergio Gandia, Israel Villarrasa-Sapiña, José Luis Bermejo, and Xavier García-Massó

, Cinar, Majnemer, & Gagnon, 2017 ). Balance and the cognitive function (e.g., working memory) can potentially influence each other ( Huang & Mercer, 2001 ). Studies conducted on the relationship between motor performance and working memory require individuals to perform both tasks simultaneously ( dual

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Adaptive Working Memory Training Reduces the Negative Impact of Anxiety on Competitive Motor Performance

Emmanuel Ducrocq, Mark Wilson, Tim J. Smith, and Nazanin Derakshan

working memory (WM; Shipstead, Lindsey, Marshall, & Engle, 2014 ; Unsworth, Redick, Spillers, & Brewer, 2012 ), attentional control or working memory capacity (WMC) reflects individual differences in the efficacy by which executive functions of inhibition (e.g., resistance to distraction), shifting (e

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Exercise and Working Memory: An Individual Differences Investigation

Benjamin A. Sibley and Sian L. Beilock

In the current work we asked whether executive function, as measured by tests of working memory capacity, might benefit from an acute bout of exercise and, more specifically, whether individuals who are lower or higher in working memory to begin with would be more or less affected by an exercise manipulation. Healthy adults completed working memory measures in a nonexercise (baseline) session and immediately following a 30-min self-paced bout of exercise on a treadmill (exercise session). Sessions were conducted 1 week apart and session order was counterbalanced across participants. A significant Session × Working Memory interaction was obtained such that only those individuals lowest in working memory benefited from the exercise manipulation. This work suggests that acute bouts of exercise may be most beneficial for healthy adults whose cognitive performance is generally the lowest, and it demonstrates that the impact of exercise on cognition is not uniform across all individuals.

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The Effects of Various Cognitive Tasks Including Working Memory, Visuospatial, and Executive Function on Postural Control in Patients With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

Fatemeh Emami, Hossein Negahban, Ehsan Sinaei, Neda Mostafaee, Behnaz Shahtahmassebi, Mohammad Hossein Ebrahimzadeh, and Mohammad Mehravar

and damaged motor performance in individuals with ACL injury are well supported by evidence ( Faltus et al., 2020 ; Mohammadi-Rad et al., 2016 ; Needle et al., 2017 ). Cognition incorporates different dimensions including attention, working memory, executive function, visuospatial perception, memory